Translations

Can Those With Heinous Transgressions & Dharma Slander Reach Pure Land? 五逆谤法者能生净土吗?


阿弥陀佛接引手印
Āmítuófó’s Mudras When Receiving Beings

问:在《无量寿经》中,阿弥陀佛的《第十八愿》声明,造五逆谤法者,不能得生净土。但在《观经》中,净土的《下品下生》声明,包括造五逆者,也能得生净土。我们应当如何理解?

Question: The 18th Vow of Amitābha Buddha in the Immeasurable Life Sūtra says that those with the Five Heinous Transgressions, who slander the Dharma cannot reach his Pure Land. However, the Low Grade’s Low Birth in Pure Land, in the Contemplation Sūtra, says that even those with the Five Heinous Transgressions can reach his Pure Land. How do we reconcile these teachings?

对以上二经章节不熟悉者,可在以下善导大师的相关问答后的‘相关章节’查看。

Answer: For those unfamiliar with the sections mentioned in the two sūtras, they can be referred to in the ‘Related Sections’ below the following related ‘question and answer’ by Great Master Shàndǎo.

【为何《无量寿经》除罪者,而《观经》却摄罪者?】

[Why Does The Immeasurable Life Sūtra Exclude Transgressors,
While The Contemplation Sūtra Gathers Them?] 

问曰。如四十八愿中,唯除五逆诽谤正法,不得往生。

Question: As [stated in the 18th vow of the] 48 vows [of Amitābha Buddha] within, only excluded [are those with the] Five Heinous [Transgressions and] slander the right Dharma, [who will] not attain rebirth [in his Pure Land].

今此观经下品下生中,简谤法,摄五逆者。有何意也?

Now [in] this Contemplation Sūtra’s Low Grade’s Low Birth within, [it] removes [those who] slander [the] Dharma, [and] gathers those [with the] Five Heinous [Transgressions]. What is [the] meaning [of this]?

答曰。此义仰就抑止门中解。如四十八愿中,除谤法五逆者。

Answer: This meaning [is] with regard to, [as a] restraint door within understood. [As] such, [the] 48 vows within, exclude those [who] slander [the] Dharma [and with the] Five Heinous [Transgressions].

然此之二业,其障极重,众生若造,直入阿鼻,历劫周慞,无由可出。

Certainly, [as] these two [kinds] of karma, their obstacles [are] extremely heavy, sentient beings if [having] created [them, will] directly enter Avīci [Hell, to] pass through kalpas [with] cycles [of] terror, without cause [to be] able [to] exit.

但如来恐其造斯二过,方便止言不得往生。亦不是不摄也。

Only as [the] Thus Come One fears [that] they create these two faults, [as a] skilful means [with] preventive words, [said that they do] not attain rebirth. [They] likewise are NOT not gathered.

又下品下生中,取五逆除谤法者。其五逆已作,不可舍令流转,还发大悲摄取往生。

Also, [the] Low Grade’s Low Birth within receives those [with the] Five Heinous [Transgressions and] slandered [the] Dharma. [As] those [with the] Five Heinous [Transgressions] already done, cannot [be] abandoned [to] enable [them to be] reborn [without liberation, there is] still giving rise [to] great compassion [to] gather [them for] rebirth.

然谤法之罪未为,又止言若起谤法即不得生。此就未造业而解也。若造,还摄得生。

Certainly, [for those with the] transgression of slandering [the] Dharma yet [to be] done, also, [as] preventive words, [is it said that] if giving rise [to] slander [of the] Dharma, [this] is the same as not attaining birth. This [is] with regard to [those] yet [to] create [the] karma thus understood. If created, [they are] still gathered [to] attain birth.

虽得生彼,华合迳于多劫。此等罪人在华内时,有三种障。一者不得见佛及诸圣众。二者不得听闻正法。三者不得历事供养。除此已外更无诸苦。经云犹如比丘入三禅之乐也。

Although attaining birth there, [they are in] flowers closed, passing by for many kalpas. These [and] other transgressors when in [the] flowers within, have three kinds [of] obstacles. First, not attaining sight [of] Buddha and all [of the] noble assembly. Second, not attaining hearing [of the] right Dharma. Third, not attaining [the] going through [of the] matter [of] making offerings. Except these, then beyond, [they are] further without all [kinds of] suffering. The sūtra says, [they are] just like bhikṣus [who have] entered [the] bliss of [the] third dhyāna.

应知,虽在华中多劫不开,可不胜阿鼻地狱之中,长时永劫受诸苦痛也。此义就抑止门解竟。

[It] should [be] known, [that] although in [the] flowers within [for] many kalpas not blossoming, [they do] not surpass [that] of Avīci Hell within, [for a] long time [of] lasting kalpas receiving all [kinds of] suffering [and] pain. This meaning [is] with regard to, [as a] restraint door, [for] complete understanding.

净土宗二祖善导大师
《观经四贴疏》: 散善义

The Pure Land Tradition’s Second Patriarch Great Master Shàndǎo
(Commentary [On The] Contemplation Sūtra [In] Four Fascicles:
Scattered Goodness’ Meaning)

注 Notes:

[1] 造五逆者,若至心忏悔,及时发起信愿行三资粮,即可得生净土。也可以念佛行表示忏悔。

Those with the Five Heinous Transgressions can reach Pure Land if they repent sincerely, and give rise to the Three Provisions of Faith, Aspiration and Practice in time. Mindfulness of Buddha’s name can be practised to express repentance too. 

[2] 尤其诽谤净土法门核心教理者,甚至第一信资粮都缺乏,何况其他,所以不可得生净土。若至心忏悔者,才有可能。

Especially for those with slander of the Pure Land Dharma’s core teachings, there will not even be Faith as the first provision, what more the rest, thus unable to reach Pure Land. If there is sincere repentance, this is then possible.

[3] 虽然阿弥陀佛,有圆满大慈悲的他力,愿接引一切众生生净土,众生仍然须要配合因果法则,依教奉行。

Although Amitābha Buddha has perfect and great compassion with his Other-power, wishing to guide all beings to his Pure Land, all still have to accord with the laws of karma, by practising as taught accordingly.

[4] ‘唯除五逆,诽谤正法’的教理,是为了防范众生造极重恶业,又不及时至心忏悔,信受念佛,而堕地狱的慈悲方便法。

As a compassionate and skilful preventive measure to deter beings from creating extremely heavy negative karma, also not sincerely repenting in time, to faithfully receive guidance on mindfulness of Buddha, thus falling into hell, the exclusion of those with the Five Heinous Transgressions and slander of the Dharma from Pure Land was taught.

[5] ‘不除五逆,诽谤正法’的教理,是为了鼓励和拯救已经造了极重恶业的众生,能至心忏悔,而避免堕地狱的慈悲方便法。

As a compassionate and skilful remedial measure to encourage and save beings, who had created extremely heavy negative karma to avoid falling into hell, the inclusion of those with the Five Heinous Transgressions and slander of the Dharma for Pure Land who are sincerely repentant was taught.

[6] 造五逆者常福报少,导致难遇善知识,难得及时的引导。诽谤正法者常智慧少,导致难信受念佛,难得及时的引导。

Those who had created the Five Heinous Transgressions are often with little blessings, which makes it difficult to encounter good-knowing friends to guide them in time. Those who slander the right Dharma are often with little wisdom, which makes it difficult to faithfully receive guidance on mindfulness of Buddha in time.

[7] 极重恶业,而能及时依教奉行者,虽然稀少但的确存在,佛陀所以教之。欲知所遇者是否肯接受这最后一线希望之法,即是以至心引导所教。因极重恶业者稀少,不该假设任何人属于此类,导致因想象难助,而不肯助。然而,若真难助,更应当助,以免堕地狱,而错失净土。遇无善知识者时,应当尽力成为此人的善知识。

Those with extremely heavy negative karma, who are able to practise as taught accordingly in time, although rare, definitely do exist, which is why the Buddha taught so. The way to know if those encountered are ready to receive this last ray of hope, is to sincerely guide them as taught. As those with extremely heavy negative karma are rare, we should not assume anyone is of this category, which might create unwillingness to help due to imagined difficulties. However, if truly difficult to help, all the more should that person be helped, to avoid falling into hell, and missing of Pure Land. When encountering those without good-knowing friends, we should do our best to become these persons’ good-knowing friends.

[8] 一般,今现越任性邪恶者,之后越难至心忏悔。所以,众生应当当下至心忏悔罪业,以免堕地狱,而错失净土。

Generally, the more wilfully evil one is now, the more difficult is it to sincerely repent later. Thus, all should at once be sincerely repentant for our karmic faults, to avoid falling into hell, and missing of Pure Land.

[9] 所提到的十二大劫只是净土中十二天的时间,是无期地狱的极大‘折扣’。

The 12 great kalpas mentioned is only 12 days in Pure Land’s time, which is an extremely great ‘discount’ from an indefinitely long time in hell.

Namo Amituofo : Translation and notes by Shen Shi’an

相关章节
Related Sections:

弥陀十八愿如何接引下下品
How Āmítuófó’s 18th Vow Receives Lowest Grade’s Beings
https://purelanders.com/2019/01/15/how-amituofos-18th-vow-receives-lowest-grades-beings

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