General

Chanting When Dying, After Death, During & After Wakes 死亡前后与丧礼中后的诵念

死亡前的诵念
Chanting Before Death

临终时,应尽可能多次顺序重复进行以下的步骤 [1], [2], [3], [5]  [6]但应用以下临终者 [2] 开示,而不必念 [4] 阿弥陀经

临终者的开示

(依情况,可略过括号中的文字。)「亲爱的 ___ [临终者名],您已经为了家人、朋友和社会,做了许多贡献,就好比 _____ [列出一些杰出的善行]。我们将继续以您的名义,为您行善造功德。所以,您应该随喜功德而安心。既然您将要离开,现在就要放下【您的执着,如】家庭、财富、地位,【或所厌恶的,如】疼痛、遗憾、怨恨、恐惧,因为这些妄想都帮不了您,也只会干扰您。现在最能利益自己和您所爱的人的,就是真诚地跟我们一起念佛。这样就可以往生到阿弥陀佛的净土。那里没有痛苦,只有安乐。别担心您不够清净。只要您现在诚心悔过,阿弥陀佛一定会慈悲接引您。即使是犯过大错的人,一旦忏悔,而真诚念佛,也可以往生净土。(念《忏悔文》后),请随着我们的念佛,轻声跟着念,或在心中默念。只要全心全意念佛,您一定会看到阿弥陀佛来接引您到他的净土。请只跟着阿弥陀佛去,而别跟随其他人。请别担心您的家人,因为他们都会安好。将来他们也会念佛往生净土,与您见面。让我们现在用最真诚的心念。」

When approaching life’s end, the following steps [1], [2], [3], [5] and [6] should be done sequentially and repeatedly, for as many times as possible. However, use the following [2] GUIDANCE To The Dying Person instead, with no need to chant [4] ĀMÍTUÓJĪNG. (This is BGRAM.)

Guidance To The Dying Person

(Depending on the situation, the text in brackets can be skipped.) ‘Dearest ___ [name of dying person], you have done much good already, having done _____ [list some outstanding good deeds] for your family, friends and society. And we will continue to do more good in your name to create merits for you. For this, you should rejoice and have peace of mind. As you are about to depart, it is time to stop thinking about [your attachments such as] family, wealth, status, [or your aversions such as] pain, regrets, grudges and fears, as these thoughts cannot help you now, and can only disturb you. The best thing you can do for yourself and your loved ones is to Niànfó with us sincerely now, so that you can reach Āmítuófó’s Pure Land – where there is no more suffering, where there is only bliss. Do not worry that you are not pure enough, for Āmítuófó is compassionate and will receive you if you wish to be a better person from now on. Even those who had made great mistakes but repent can reach Pure Land by sincere Niànfó. (After reciting the Repentance Verse), please follow our Niànfó and chant along softly, or in your mind. Focusing only on the name of Āmítuófó wholeheartedly, you will definitely see Āmítuófó come to guide you to his Pure Land. Please follow only Āmítuófó and no one else. Please do not worry about your loved ones, as they will be fine. They too will Niànfó to reach Pure Land when it is time to meet you there. Let us now most sincerely recite.’
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死亡后,丧礼时,与丧礼后的诵念
Chanting After Death, At Wakes, And After Wakes

土葬或火葬前,应尽可能多次顺序重复进行以下的六个步骤。丧礼不是家人和朋友聚会的场合,而是为了真诚引导可能还没往生的死者的时机,希望他/她能尽快到达阿弥陀佛的净土,以免被业风强行轮转到别处。

The following, with the acronym of BGRAAM for easy remembering the 6 steps, should be done sequentially and repeatedly, for as many times as possible before burial or cremation. This is so as the funeral is not an occasion for family and friends to gather socially, but an opportunity for sincerely guiding the deceased, who might not yet be reborn, to reach Āmítuófó’s Pure Land as soon as possible, before being karmically forced to be reborn elsewhere.

[1] 礼敬:在遗体附近(如头部前和或后),应当摆设阿弥陀佛的图像或塑像。特别是在没有助念的情况下,为提醒往生者要时时刻刻真诚念佛。没人助念时,应继续播放念佛机,放在棺木上的头部。

正式开始念诵前,由于空间有限,只需向阿弥陀佛像问讯,表示礼敬和皈依。(这也面向着往生者的头部方向。)这是为了提醒往生者,要同样认真诚恳,一起念诵。

若有多人助念,可用引磬协调问讯和助念。(也可用木鱼。)应当坐在棺木周围。如果缺少空间,就阔大范围。近距离坐是方便引导往生者的关注。较有经验的助念者应当更靠近棺木,以便更清楚引导往生者和其他助念者。

[1] BOWING: There should be an Āmítuófó image (e.g. large picture or statue) placed near the body (e.g. before and/or behind the head area), to remind the deceased to Niànfó (practise mindfulness of the name of Amitābha Buddha – ‘Āmítuófó’) sincerely at all times, especially when there is no support-chanting going on. When there is no one chanting live, at least a Niànfó device should be turned on at all times, to be placed on the casket near the head.

Before formally starting to chant, half-bow due to space constraints towards the Āmítuófó image thrice, to express reverence and refuge. (This will also be in the direction of the head of the deceased.) This is to remind the deceased to be equally serious and sincere in the practices to come.
 
If there are many doing chanting, a guiding bell (with optional wooden fish to coordinate sūtra-chanting) can be used to coordinate bowing and chanting. There should first be sitting around the casket, and beyond if lacking space. Proximity is to guide the deceased to pay attention. More experienced chanters should be nearer to the casket to more clearly guide the deceased and others chanting.

[2] 开示:靠近遗体头部,说出如以下的开示。这是为可能还在遗体内或附近的死者神识解释他/她现在应当有的态度,以及您将要念诵的内容。若人多,就围着棺木,为引导可能在周围的神识的关注。

死者的开示

(依情况,可略过括号中的文字。为刚断气者,不必念经,唯直念佛。丧礼时可念经。)「亲爱的 ___ [死者名],因为您已经过世了,这时应该真诚地跟我们一起(念《忏悔文》),念佛。这样就可以往生到阿弥陀佛的净土。那里没有痛苦,只有安乐。请别执着您的财富和家人,因为这些都必须放下。我们向您保证,一切都会安好。时间到时,大家也会念佛往生到净土,与您见面。(我们将念《阿弥陀经》,为您介绍阿弥陀佛与他的净土。)以免时间不够,为了得到最好的往生,请您以最真诚的心,跟我们一起念佛。这是您能为自己和大家做的最好一件事。( __ [数] 天后,您的遗体将会被火化/埋葬。请别执着它。)请继续真诚地念佛,直到您看见阿弥陀佛来接引您到他的净土。请只跟着阿弥陀佛去,而别跟随其他人。让我们现在用最真诚的心念。」

[2] GUIDANCE: Go near the head of the body of the deceased, and say words of guidance, such as the below. This is to explain to the consciousness of the deceased, who might be near or in the body, on what attitude he or she should have now, and what you are about to chant. If there are a few people or more, they should surround the casket. If the deceased is around, he or she is thus likelier to pay more attention.

Guidance To The Deceased

(Depending on the situation, the text in brackets can be skipped. For those just deceased, there is no need to recite Āmítuójīng, only having direct Niànfó. At the funeral, there can be recitation of Āmítuójīng.) ‘Dearest ___ [name of deceased], as you are now deceased, it is time to (recite the Repentance Verse and) Niànfó with us sincerely now, so that you can reach Āmítuófó’s Pure Land – where there is no more suffering, where there is only bliss. Please do not be attached to your wealth and family, as you have to leave them behind. We assure you that all will be well. They too will Niànfó to reach Pure Land when it is time to meet you there. (We will recite Āmítuójīng to introduce Āmítuófó and his Pure Land to you.) Please Niànfó with us as sincerely as you can because this is the only way to have the best rebirth before it is too late. This is the best thing you can do for yourself and your loved ones. ( __ [number of] days later, your body will be cremated/buried. Please do not be attached to your body.) Please continue to Niànfó sincerely all the way, until you see Āmítuófó come to guide you to his Pure Land. Please follow only Āmítuófó and no one else. Let us now most sincerely recite.’

[3] 忏悔:念以下之《忏悔文》。这是为死者表示忏悔,以便清除和放下可能在念佛时会升起的顾虑,并且帮消业,增加心安。

忏悔文

往昔所造诸恶业,
皆由无始贪瞋痴,
从身语意之所生,
今对佛前求忏悔。

[3] REPENTANCE: Chant the Repentance Verse below. This is to express repentance on behalf of the deceased, so as to clear and let go of misgivings which might distract from Niànfó, to help decrease negative karma, and increase peace of mind.

Repentance Verse

Of all my past created evil karmas,
all by beginningless greed, anger and delusion,
from my body, speech and mind as arisen,
now before the Buddha I seek repentance.

[4] 阿弥陀经:随着 https://purelanders.com/mp3 念诵 https://purelanders.com/sutra 的《阿弥陀经》。(为了节省时间和专注于 [5],应该在三到八个小时之间的往生助念时不念经,并且每天在丧礼时只念诵一[或两]次。这是为了简要介绍阿弥陀佛与他的净土,并且解释为何应当信愿念佛往生到那里。要注意的是,往生者的神识能够直接了解诵经者的念头而取得理解,(因此而超越语言障碍)。所以,诵经者应当先彻底理解经文,以便表达正见。

[4] ĀMÍTUÓJĪNG: Chant Āmítuójīng (Amitābha Sūtra) at https://purelanders.com/sutra, as guided by the track at https://purelanders.com/mp3. (To save time and to focus on [5], this should be skipped for the first round of post-death chanting, which should be between three to eight hours, and chanted only once [or twice] daily at the wake.) This is to give a concise introduction to Āmítuófó, his Pure Land and why the deceased should have Faith and Aspiration to do Niànfó Practice to be born there. Note that the consciousness is able to directly read the chanters’ minds to derive understanding. (This thus transcends any language barrier.) As such, the sūtra should first be understood well by the chanters, so as to convey right understanding.

[5] 佛号:随着 https://purelanders.com/mp3 念佛。这是为死者做好榜样,示范如何真诚信愿念佛,以便得到阿弥陀佛的接引,往生他的净土。因为念佛是正行(主要的行持),应当以此用最多时间。(例如,以上诵《阿弥陀经》大约只需18分钟,而念佛可达42分钟以上,总成一小时。)

[5] ĀMÍTUÓFÓ: Chant Āmítuófó, as guided by the track at https://purelanders.com/mp3. This is to set a good example with support-chanting, to show how sincere Niànfó Practice powered by the right Faith and Aspiration should be done to receive Āmítuófó’s reception and guidance be born in his Pure Land. As this is the Main Practice, it should be done for the longest period of time. (E.g. the above practices with Āmítuójīng takes about 18 minutes, while Niànfó can be 42 minutes or more, making it a 1-hour session.)

[6] 回向:念以下之《回向文》。这是为一切众生,包括死者,回向祈福,减轻恶业,增加心安。同时替代他们表达往生净土的信愿。

回向文

愿以此功德,庄严佛净土,

上报四重恩,下济三途苦。
若有见闻者,悉发菩提心,
尽此一报身,同生极乐国。

(愿 ___ [死者名],连同他、她的冤亲债主,一起往生到阿弥陀佛的净土。)

[6] MERITS-SHARING: Chant the Verse For Sharing Of Merits below. This is to dedicate merits to all beings, including the deceased, to decrease their negative karma, increase peace of mind, while on their behalf express Faith and Aspiration to reach Pure Land.

Verse For Sharing Of Merits

May these meritorious virtues, adorn the Buddha’s Pure Land [so as to be born there], repay the four weighty sources of kindness [which are our parents, the Triple Gem (Buddhas, Dharma, Saṃgha), society (country) and all sentient beings] above, and relieve suffering of the three paths [of hell-beings, hungry ghosts and animals] below. If there are those who see or hear this, may all give rise to the Bodhi Mind [(Bodhicitta) which is the aspiration to attain Buddhahood while guiding all sentient beings to the same goal], and at the end of this one retribution body [that is karmically subject to suffering], be born in the Land Of Ultimate Bliss [which is Āmítuófó’s Pure Land] together.

(May _____ [name of dying/deceased], along with his/her karmic creditors be reborn in Āmítuófó’s Pure Land too.)

如之前,问讯三次,便结束。

As before, half-bow thrice, to end the session.

为了以精简化的方法,确保死者能顺利到达净土,只应依据以上念诵。至于其他的念诵,(如其他经典、咒语、佛菩萨圣号),都不需要。这是为了预防混乱死者的方向,不知该往哪里去。除非死者有特别执着的念诵文,可以在不影响以上的主要念诵时念几次。

To streamline facilitation, and to ensure the deceased will smoothly reach Pure Land, only the above should be chanted, while other chants (e.g. other sūtras, mantras, names of Buddhas and Bodhisattvas) are not needed, in case they create confusion in terms of direction, of where to go. This should be so unless the deceased had particular chants attached to, which can then be chanted a few times, without forgoing the main focus above.

以上的六个步骤应当在死者过世后的49天(包括丧礼期)内遵循。由于丧礼后的因缘不同,可随着情况做改变,如在最适合的地方念诵,(即是死者若未轮转,最可能执着的地方),如瓮、神主牌、坟墓、寺院或家中的佛龛。

The above 6 steps should be followed for 49 days after the deceased’s passing (which would include the funeral duration), as adapted due to change of conditions after the funeral, such as chanting at the most appropriate place (where the deceased might be attached to if yet to be reborn), such as the urn, tablet, grave, temple shrine or home shrine.

Extra Notes:

[i] The above system, which streamlines the Pure Land teachings, has proven to work well, as attested by many testimonies at https://purelanders.com/testimonies.

[ii] The key factor for practising the above well is to do so with utmost sincerity.

[iii] Some might offer Guidance Text in their own words, and miss some key points in the recommended version. It can be rephrased, but all the points should still be covered. Otherwise, listeners might not give rise to the Three Provisions adequately.

[iv] For other essential details to note, please see https://purelanders.com/now.

相关教理
Related Teachings:

How Do I Start Niànfó Practice?
https://purelanders.com/2016/02/17/how-do-i-start-nianfo-practice

Support-Chanting Layouts For Patients & Wakes
临终与丧礼助念摆设
https://purelanders.com/layout

What Should Be Done During Cremation (Or Burial)?
https://purelanders.com/2016/04/06/what-should-be-done-during-cremation-or-burial

Important Guidelines Before, During & After Dying
https://purelanders.com/2015/12/30/contents-of-the-pure-land-passport-the-three-great-essentials-when-approaching-death-%E4%B8%B4%E7%BB%88%E4%B8%89%E5%A4%A7%E8%A6%81 

How To Share The Power Of Merits & Guidance?
https://purelanders.com/2013/11/07/how-to-share-the-power-of-merits-guidance

Recommended Pure Land Practices
https://purelanders.com/2019/01/16/recommended-pure-land-practices

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