Sutras

The Practices Of All Bodhisattvas For Establishing Pure Lands In The Vimalakīrti Sūtra《维摩诘经》中诸菩萨创立净土之行

《维摩诘经》中诸菩萨创立净土之行
[The] Practices Of All Bodhisattvas [For] Establishing Pure Lands In [The] Vimalakīrti Sūtra

In the Sūtra That [Is] Spoken [By] Vimalakīrti’s《维摩诘所说经》Chapter One [On The] Buddha Land (佛国品第一), Śākyamuni Buddha (释迦牟尼佛) taught on the spiritual qualities needed for Bodhisattvas to establish Pure Lands, as with notes below.

尔时,长者子宝积说此偈已,白佛言:「世尊!是五百长者子,皆已发阿耨多罗三藐三菩提心,愿闻得佛国土清净,唯愿世尊说诸菩萨净土之行。」

At that time, [the] elder’s son Treasure Accumulation [i.e. Ratnarāśi], [having] said these verses already, [to the] Buddha said, ‘World-Honoured [One], these five hundred elders’ sons, [have] all already given rise [to the] Anuttara Samyak Saṃbodhi mind, [and] wish [to] hear [about] attaining Buddha lands’ purity, only wishing [the] World-Honoured [One to] speak [of the] practices of all Bodhisattvas’ Pure Lands.’

[Note 1: This request is for learning how to establish Pure Lands.]

佛言:「善哉!宝积!乃能为诸菩萨,问于如来净土之行,谛听!谛听!善思念之!当为汝说。」于是宝积及五百长者子,受教而听。

[The] Buddha said, ‘Excellent, Treasure Accumulation, [to] thus [be] able [to], for all Bodhisattvas, ask of [the] practices of Thus Come [Ones’] Pure Lands. Listen attentively! Listen attentively! Contemplate well [and be] mindful of [this. I] will for you speak.’ Thereupon, Treasure Accumulation and [the] five hundred elders’ sons, received [the] teaching and listened.

佛言:「宝积!众生之类是菩萨佛土。所以者何?菩萨随所化众生而取佛土,随所调伏众生而取佛土,随诸众生应以何国入佛智慧而取佛土,随诸众生应以何国起菩萨根而取佛土。

[The] Buddha said, ‘Treasure Accumulation, [the] kinds of sentient beings are Bodhisattvas’ Buddha lands. Why [is] that so? Bodhisattvas, according [to] those transformed sentient beings, then obtain Buddha lands, according [to] those tamed sentient beings, then obtain Buddha lands, according [to] all sentient beings, [who] should with what[ever] lands enter Buddhas’ wisdom, then obtain Buddha lands, according [to] all sentient beings, [who] should with what[ever] lands give rise [to] Bodhisattvas’ roots, then obtain Buddha lands.

所以者何?菩萨取于国,皆为饶益诸众生故。譬如有人,欲于空地,造立宫室,随意无碍,若于虚空,终不能成!菩萨如是,为成就众生故,愿取佛国,愿取佛国者,非于空也。

Why [is] that so? Bodhisattvas’ obtaining of lands, [are] all for benefitting all sentient beings thus. For example, [if there] is [a] person, [who] desires [to], on empty ground, build [and] erect [a] palace, [this] accords [with the] wish without obstacles. If on empty space, [in the] end, [it will] not [be] able [to be] accomplished. Bodhisattvas thus, for accomplishing sentient beings thus, aspire [to] obtain Buddha lands, [with] those aspiring [to] obtain Buddha lands, not [doing so] on nothing.

[Note 2: This is a reminder that Pure Lands are not established upon attachment to nothingness, or even to emptiness, but by skilful relating to forms (purely) and with (pure) forms. As taught by Layperson Vimalakīrti (维摩诘居士) in Chapter One [On The] Buddha Path (佛道品第八) on Bodhisattvas’ practice, ‘Although knowing all Buddha lands, and with sentient beings [are] empty, yet constantly cultivating [a] Pure Land, [to] teach [and] transform all sentient beings.’ (虽知诸佛国,及与众生空,而常修净土,教化于群生。) Since sentient beings (and oneself) still abide in forms, it is skilful to establish Pure Lands with pure forms to best guide them to Buddhahood. Buddhas and Bodhisattvas thus continually adorn their Pure Lands and guide beings to enter them.]

[Note 3: The following is a checklist on how to create Pure Lands, which consists of down-to-earth yet far-reaching spiritual qualities to cultivate for one and all. Note that the criteria, although encouraged for all to cultivate, is not exactly the same as that for most ordinary beings to be reborn in Pure Lands. For example, to reach Amitābha Buddha’s (阿弥陀佛) Pure Land, the Three Provisions (三资粮) of Faith, Aspiration and Practice (信愿行) of mindfulness of Buddha (念佛) are the minimum criteria needed.]

宝积当知,[1] 直心是菩萨净土,菩萨成佛时,不谄众生来生其国。

Treasure Accumulation, [you] should know, [that the] [1] Straight[forward] Mind is Bodhisattvas’ Pure Land, [as] when Bodhisattvas accomplish Buddhahood, sentient beings [who do] not flatter [will] come [to be] born [in] their lands.

[Note 4: Below begins the list of the 17 essential values of Pure Lands, from [1] to [17], as spiritual qualities that form their essence, for attracting those who are similar, and aspire to attain the similar. It sets the benchmarks for what constitute Pure Lands in spirit. The spiritual qualities of Pure Lands depend on the qualities of their teachers and students present, as perfected Bodhisattvas (i.e. Buddhas) and those aspiring to be Buddhas (i.e. Bodhisattvas).]

[2] 深心是菩萨净土,菩萨成佛时,具足功德众生来生其国。

[2] [The] Profound Mind is Bodhisattvas’ Pure Land, [as] when Bodhisattvas accomplish Buddhahood, sentient beings [who are] complete [with] meritorious virtues [will] come [to be] born [in] their lands.

[Note 5: The Profound Mind is with great seriousness (深重) and determination (i.e. adhyāśaya: resolution) in seeking the Dharma (求法) that leads to the profound (高深) fruit of Buddhahood (佛果). It is with deep faith (深信) in the Buddhas(‘s teachings) and one’s own Buddha-nature (佛性) too.]

[3] 大乘心是菩萨净土,菩萨成佛时,大乘众生来生其国。

[3] [The] Great Vehicle’s Mind is Bodhisattvas’ Pure Land, [as] when Bodhisattvas accomplish Buddhahood, sentient beings [who are of the] Great Vehicle [will] come [to be] born [in] their lands.

[4] 布施是菩萨净土,菩萨成佛时,一切能舍众生来生其国。

[4] Generosity is Bodhisattvas’ Pure Land, [as] when Bodhisattvas accomplish Buddhahood, all sentient beings [who are] able [to] renounce [will] come [to be] born [in] their lands.

[Note 6: The spiritual qualities from [4] to [9] are the Six Perfections (六度), which are

(i) [4] Generosity (布施: Giving),
(ii) [5] Upholding Of Precepts (持戒: Morality),
(iii) [6] Patience (忍辱),
(iv) [7] Diligence (精进),
(v) [8] Meditative Concentration (禅定) and
(vi) [9] Wisdom (智慧).]

[Note 7: There are three kinds of Generosity (布施), with

(i) Wealth (财布施),
(ii) the Dharma (法布施) and
(iii) Fearlessness (无畏布施).

There are two kinds of giving with Wealth (财布施), with

(a) Inner Wealth (内财), such as giving physical energy (体力) in labour (劳动), and
(b) Outer Wealth (外财), such as giving in money (钱财: cash) and kind (实物).

(Giving wealth attains more wealth.)

(ii) Giving of the Dharma (法布施) can be by sharing and speaking on the sūtras (讲经), encouraging attending of talks and classes to learn the Dharma (劝学), and sponsoring the printing and distributing of Dharma sūtras and books (印经). (Giving the Dharma attains more wisdom.)

(iii) Giving fearlessness (无畏布施) can be by offering assurance and consolation. Even eating as veg(etari)ans is giving fearlessness to animals as they will not die in/directly for us. Liberating lives (放生) held captive, such as animals, otherwise to be killed soon and/or trapped indefinitely is giving fearlessness too. (Giving fearlessness attains more health and longevity.)]

[5] 持戒是菩萨净土,菩萨成佛时,行十善道满愿众生来生其国。

[5] Upholding [Of] Precepts is Bodhisattvas’ Pure Land, [as] when Bodhisattvas accomplish Buddhahood, sentient beings [who] practise [the] Ten Goodnesses’ path [to] fulfil [their] aspirations [will] come [to be] born [in] their lands.

[Note 8: Upholding Of Precepts include the Five Precepts (五戒), Eight Precepts (八戒), Bodhisattva Precepts (菩萨戒) and eventually the Monastic Precepts (出家戒).]

[Note 9: The Ten Goodnesses (十善) or Ten Good Karmas (十善业) are to have

the body (身)

(i) not killing lives (不杀生),
(ii) not stealing (不偷盗), and
(iii) not having sexual misconduct (不邪淫),

the mouth (口)

(iv) not having false speech (不妄语),
(v) not having harsh speech (不恶口),
(vi) not having double-tongued speech (不两舌), and
(vii) not having frivolous speech (不绮语), and

the mind (意)

(viii) not having greedy desires (不贪欲),
(ix) not having anger (嗔恚), and
(x) not having ignorance (愚痴).]

[6] 忍辱是菩萨净土,菩萨成佛时,三十二相庄严众生来生其国。

[6] Patience is Bodhisattvas’ Pure Land, [as] when Bodhisattvas accomplish Buddhahood, sentient beings [with the] thirty-two forms [of] adornment [will] come [to be] born [in] their lands.

[Note 10: For the thirty-two forms of adornment (三十二相庄严), see https://thedailyenlightenment.com/2016/07/how-does-the-buddha-look-like.]

[7] 精进是菩萨净土,菩萨成佛时,勤修一切功德众生来生其国。

[7] Diligence is Bodhisattvas’ Pure Land, [as] when Bodhisattvas accomplish Buddhahood, sentient beings [who] diligently cultivate all meritorious virtues [will] come [to be] born [in] their lands.

[8] 禅定是菩萨净土,菩萨成佛时,摄心不乱众生来生其国。

[8] Meditative Concentration is Bodhisattvas’ Pure Land, [as] when Bodhisattvas accomplish Buddhahood, sentient beings [who] gather [their] minds without [being] scattered [will] come [to be] born [in] their lands.

[9] 智慧是菩萨净土,菩萨成佛时,正定众生来生其国。

[9] Wisdom is Bodhisattvas’ Pure Land, [as] when Bodhisattvas accomplish Buddhahood, sentient beings [who have] Right Concentration [will] come [to be] born [in] their lands.

[10] 四无量心是菩萨净土,菩萨成佛时,成就 (i)(ii) (iii)(iv) 舍众生来生其国。

[10] [The] Four Immeasurable Minds are Bodhisattvas’ Pure Land, [as] when Bodhisattvas accomplish Buddhahood, sentient beings [who have] accomplished (i) loving-kindness, (ii) compassion, (iii) rejoice [and] (iv) equanimity [will] come [to be] born [in] their lands.

[Note 11: The Four Immeasurable Minds (四无量心) are

(i) Loving-kindness (慈),
(ii) Compassion (悲),
(iii) Rejoice (喜) and
(iv) Equanimity (舍).]

[11] 四摄法是菩萨净土,菩萨成佛时,解脱所摄众生来生其国。

[11] [The] Four Gathering Methods are Bodhisattvas’ Pure Land, [as] when Bodhisattvas accomplish Buddhahood, sentient beings [who have] liberated those gathered [will] come [to be] born [in] their lands.

[Note 12: The Four Gathering Methods (四摄法) are

(i) Generosity (布施),
(ii) Loving Speech (爱语),
(iii) Beneficial Action (利行) and
(iv) Working Together (同事).]

[12] 方便是菩萨净土,菩萨成佛时,于一切法方便无碍众生来生其国。

[12] Skilful Means are Bodhisattvas’ Pure Land, [as] when Bodhisattvas accomplish Buddhahood, sentient beings with all Dharma [teachings’] skilful means without obstacles [will] come [to be] born [in] their lands.

[13] 三十七道品是菩萨净土,菩萨成佛时,念处正勤神足根力觉道众生来生其国。

[13] [The] Thirty-Seven Path Factors are Bodhisattvas’ Pure land, [as] when Bodhisattvas accomplish Buddhahood, sentient beings [with] Mindfulness Bases, Right Diligences, Power Bases, Roots, Powers, Awakening [and] Path [will] come [to be] born [in] their lands.

[Note 13: The Mindfulness Bases (念处) are the Four Mindfulness Bases (四念处), which are

(i) Body’s Mindfulness Base (身念处), with contemplation of the body as not pure (观身不净),
(ii) Feelings’ Mindfulness Base (受念处), with contemplation that feelings are suffering (观受是苦),
(iii) Mind’s Mindfulness Base (心念处), with contemplation that the mind(‘s consciousness) is impermanent (观心无常) and
(iv) Dharmas’ Mindfulness Base (法念处), with contemplation that dharmas are without self (观法无我).]

[Note 14: The Right Diligences (正勤) are the Four Diligences (四正勤), which are

(i) with already arisen evil, enabling it to be forever severed (已生恶令永断),
(ii) with yet to arise evil, enabling it to not arise (未生恶令不生),
(iii) with yet to arise good, enabling it to arise (未生善令生起), and
(iv) with already arisen good, enabling it to increase and grow (已生善令增长).]

[Note 15: The Power Bases (神足) are the Four Power Bases (四神足), which are

(i) Desire’s Power Base (欲神足),
(ii) Diligence’s Power Base (勤神足),
(iii) Mind’s Power Base (心神足) and
(iv) Contemplation’s Power Base (观神足).]

[Note 16: The Roots (根) are the Five Roots (五根), which are

(i) Faith Root (信根),
(ii) Diligence Root (精进根),
(iii) Mindfulness Root (念根),
(iv) Concentration Root (定根) and
(v) Wisdom Root (慧根).]

[Note 17: The Powers (力) are the Five Powers (五力), which are

(i) Faith Power (信力),
(ii) Diligence Power (精进力),
(iii) Mindfulness Power (念力),
(iv) Concentration Power (定力) and
(v) Wisdom Power (慧力).]

[Note 18: Awakening (觉) refers to the Sevenfold Awakening Branches (七觉支), which are

(i) Selection Of Dharma’s Awakening Branch (择法觉支),
(ii) Diligence’s Awakening Branch (精进觉支),
(iii) Joy’s Awakening Branch (喜觉支),
(iv) Tranquillity’s Awakening Branch (轻安觉支),
(v) Renunciation’s Awakening Branch (舍觉支),
(vi) Concentration’s Awakening Branch (定觉支) and
(vii) Mindfulness’ Awakening Branch (念觉支).]

[Note 19: The Path (道) is the Eightfold Right Path (八正道), which has

(i) Right View (正见),
(ii) Right Thought (正思维),
(iii) Right Speech (正语),
(iv) Right Action (正业),
(v) Right Livelihood (正命),
(vi) Right Diligence (正精进),
(vii) Right Mindfulness (正念) and
(viii) Right Concentration (正定).]

[Note 20: The above from [12] to [18] add up to be the Thirty-Seven Path Factors (三十七道品), for at least self-liberation.]

[14] 回向心是菩萨净土,菩萨成佛时,得一切具足功德国土。

[14] [The] Mind [Of] Dedication is Bodhisattvas’ Pure Land, [as] when Bodhisattvas accomplish Buddhahood, [they will] attain all complete meritorious virtues’ land.

[15] 说除八难是菩萨净土,菩萨成佛时,国土无有三恶八难。

[15] Speaking [Of] Elimination [Of The] Eight Difficulties is Bodhisattvas’ Pure Land, [as] when Bodhisattvas accomplish Buddhahood, [their] lands [are] without having [the] Three Evil [Paths and the] Eight Difficulties.

[Note 21: The Three Evil Paths (三恶道) are the

(i) Hell-Beings’ Path (地狱道),
(ii) Hungry Ghosts’ Path (饿鬼道) and
(iii) Animals’ Path (畜生道).]

[Note 22: The Eight Difficulties (八难) are from not seeing a Buddha (见佛) to hear the Right Dharma (正法), which are the

(i) Difficulty Of Being In The Hell Path (在地狱难),
(ii) Difficulty Of Being In The Hungry Ghost Path (在饿鬼难),
(iii) Difficulty Of Being In The Animal Path (在畜生难),
(iv) Difficulty Of Being In A Long-Life Heaven (在长寿天难),
(v) Difficulty Of Being In Border Land’s Uttarakuru (在边地之郁单越难),
(vi) Difficulty Of Being Blind, Deaf And/Or Mute (盲聋喑哑难),
(vii) Difficulty Of Having Worldly Knowledge And Intelligence To Debate (世智辩聪难), and the
(viii) Difficulty Of Being Born Before A Buddha Or After A Buddha (生在佛前佛后难).]

[16] 自守戒行不讥彼阙是菩萨净土,菩萨成佛时,国土无有犯禁之名。

[16] Self-Observation [Of] Precept Practices Without Ridiculing Others’ Faults is Bodhisattvas’ Pure Land, [as] when Bodhisattvas accomplish Buddhahood, [their] lands [are] without having [the] names of violated prohibitions.

[17] 十善是菩萨净土,菩萨成佛时, (i) 命不中夭,(ii) 大富 (iii) 梵行,(iv) 所言诚谛;(v) 常以软语,(vi) 眷属不离,善和斗讼。(vii) 言必饶益,(viii) 不嫉 (ix) 不恚,(x) 正见众生来生其国。

[17] [The] Ten Goodnesses are Bodhisattvas’ Pure Land, [as] when Bodhisattvas accomplish Buddhahood, sentient beings [whose] (i) lives [do not] suffer [from] premature death, (ii) [have] great wealth, (iii) pure practices, (iv) all spoken truthful, (v) [are] constantly with gentle speech, (vi) family members not departing, good [at] harmonising disputes, (vii) speech definitely benefitting, (viii) without jealousy, (ix) without anger, [and (x) with] Right Views [will] come [to be] born [in] their lands.

[Note 23: The karmic rewards (业报) listed from (i) to (x) correspond to the Ten Good Karmas (十善业) listed in Note 9.]

如是宝积,菩萨
随其直心,则能发行;
随其发行,则得深心;
随其深心,则意调伏;
随意调伏,则如说行;
随如说行,则能回向;
随其回向,则有方便;

Thus, Treasure Accumulation, Bodhisattvas, according [with] their Straight[forward] Minds, [are] thus able [to] give rise [to] practice. According [with] their giving rise [to] practice, thus attain [the] Profound Mind. According [with] their Profound Minds, thus [have their] minds tamed. According [with their] minds tamed, thus as said practise. According [with] as said practising, [are] thus able [to have] dedication. According [with] their dedication, thus having skilful means.

随其方便,则成就众生;
随成就众生,则佛土净;
随佛土净,则说法净;
随说法净,则智慧净;
随智慧净,则其心净;
随其心净,则一切功德净。

According [with] their skilful means, thus accomplishing sentient beings. According [with] accomplishing [of] sentient beings, thus [are their] Buddha lands pure. According [with their] Buddha lands pure, thus [with] speaking [of the] Dharma pure. According [with] speaking [of the] Dharma pure, thus [with] wisdom purity. According [with] wisdom pure, thus [are] their minds pure. According [with] their minds pure, thus [are] all meritorious virtues pure.

经典下文
Following Sūtra Text:

《维摩诘经》:在此秽土见净土
Sight Of This Defiled Land As A Pure Land In The Vimalakīrti Sūtra
https://purelanders.com/2022/06/10/sight-of-this-defiled-land-as-a-pure-land-in-the-vimalakirti-sutra

相关教理
Related Teaching:

净土菩萨为何能安全化生于秽土
Why Pure Land Bodhisattvas Are Able To Safely Manifest In Defiled Lands
https://purelanders.com/2022/06/14/why-pure-land-bodhisattvas-are-able-to-safely-manifest-in-defiled-lands

Namo Amituofo : Translation and notes by Shen Shi’an

Please be mindful of your speech, Amituofo!

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