General

Sanskrit And English Glossary Of The Pure Land Tradition 净土宗梵英文词汇

Sanskrit And English Glossary Of The Pure Land Tradition
净土宗梵英文词汇

(The list below, more particularly focused on that related to the Pure Land teachings in this website, will be expanded over time with more entries and details. For easy remembrance, the shortcut to this page is purelanders.com/glossary. Suggestions for improvement are welcomed.)

A

Avīci Hell (阿鼻地狱):

The Uninterrupted Hell (无间地狱) with

(1) the realm’s fruit uninterrupted (趣果无间), (falling into it directly upon death)
(2) receiving of suffering uninterrupted (受苦无间)
(3) time uninterrupted (时间无间)
(4) life uninterrupted (生命无间)
(5) bodily form uninterrupted (身形无间)

B

The Bodhisattva Precepts (菩萨戒) are moral guidelines for avoiding doing of all evil for the sake of all beings, practising all good for the sake of all beings, and guiding all beings to Buddhahood.

C

D

E

The Eight Difficulties (八难) are from not seeing a Buddha (见佛) to hear the Right Dharma (正法), which are the (i) difficulty of being in the hell path (在地狱难), (ii) difficulty of being in the hungry ghost path (在饿鬼难), (iii) difficulty of being in the animal path (在畜生难), (iv) difficulty of being in a long-life heaven (在长寿天难), (v) difficulty of being in border land’s Uttarakuru (在边地之郁单越难), (vi) difficulty of being blind, deaf and/or mute (盲聋喑哑难), (vii) difficulty of having worldly knowledge and intelligence to debate (世智辩聪难), and the (viii) difficulty of being born before a Buddha or after a Buddha (生在佛前佛后难). These difficulties arise from evil karmas, from breaking the precepts.

Eight Forms Of Accomplishing The Path (八相成道):

(i) Descending from Tuṣita Heaven (降兜率)
(ii) Entering of womb (入胎)
(iii) Birth (诞生)
(iv) Leaving of household life (出家)
(v) Subduing of Māra (降魔)
(vi) Accomplishing the path (成道)
(vii) Turning the Dharma wheel (转法轮)
(viii) Entering of Parinirvāṇa (入涅槃)

Eight Great Hells (八大地狱):

(i) Great Hell Of Waiting For Revival (等活大地狱: Sañjīva Mahā Nāraka), with suffering for 1 trillion 665.3 billion (1兆6653亿) years.
(ii) Great Hell Of Black Strings (黑绳大地狱: Kālasūtra Mahā Nāraka), with suffering 10 times of the above hell, for 13 trillion 322.5 billion (13兆3225亿) years.
(iii) Great Hell Of All Closing (众合大地狱: Saṃghāta Mahā Nāraka), with suffering 10 times of the above hell, for 106 trillion 580 billion (106兆5800亿) years.
(iv) Great Hell Of Wailing (叫唤大地狱: Raurava Mahā Nāraka), with suffering 10 times of the above hell, for 852 trillion 640 billion (852兆6400亿) years.
(v) Great Hell Of Great Wailing (大叫唤大地狱: Mahāraurava Mahā Nāraka), with suffering 10 times of the above hell, for 6821 trillion 120 billion (6821兆1200亿) years.
(vi) Great Hell Of Scorching Heat (焦热大地狱: Tapana Mahā Nāraka), with suffering 10 times of the above 5 hells combined, for 5 koṭi 4568 trillion 960 billion (5京4568兆9600亿) years.
(vii) Great Hell Of Great Scorching Heat (大焦热大地狱: Pratāpana Mahā Nāraka), with suffering 10 times of the above 6 hells combined, for half an intermediate kalpa (半中劫), which is 167.98 million (1.6798亿) years.
(viii) Great Hell Of Non-Interruption (阿鼻大地狱/无间大地狱: Avīci Mahā Nāraka). With suffering of the above 7 hells combined with all suffering in other places as 1 part of suffering, this hell is with suffering 1000 times of this part, for 1 intermediate kalpa (1中劫), which is 335.96 million (3.3596亿) years.

Eightfold Noble Path (八正道):

(1) Right View (正见)
(2) Right Thought (正思维)
(3) Right Speech (正语)
(4) Right Karma (Action) (正业)
(5) Right Livelihood (正命)
(6) Right Diligence (正精进)
(7) Right Mindfulness (正念)
(8) Right Concentration (正定)

The Eight Precepts (八戒) are purification days’ (斋日) and retreat moral guidelines to (i) not kill lives (不杀生), (ii) not steal (不偷盗), (iii) not have sexual conduct (不淫), (iv) not have false speech (不妄语), (v) not drink alcohol (不饮酒), (vi) not wear perfumes, flowers and garlands, apply fragrant oils on the body (不着香花鬘,不香油涂身), (vii) not sit (and lie) on high, broad and big (chairs and) beds (不坐高广大床), sing, dance, have entertainment, go see or hear such (不歌舞倡伎,不往观听), and (viii) have untimely eating (不非时食).

The Eight Sufferings (八苦) are the Physical Sufferings (身苦) of (i) birth (生), (ii) ageing (老), (iii) sickness (病) and (iv) death (死), and the Mental Sufferings (心苦) of (v) separation from the beloved (爱别离), (vi) meeting the hated (怨憎会), (vii) not attaining the sought (求不得) and (viii) blazing of the Five Aggregates (五蕴炽盛) (of forms [色], feelings [受], perceptions [想], mental formations [行] and consciousness [识]).

Eighteen Realms (十八界): Six Roots (六根), Six Objects (六境) and Six Consciousnesses (六识)

Eighteen Uncommon Dharmas (十八不共法) (of Buddhas and Bodhisattvas):

(1) Actions without faults (身无失)
(2) Speech without faults (口无失)
(3) Thoughts without faults (of forgetfulness) (念无失)
(4) Without discriminating thoughts (of sentient beings) (无异想)
(5) Without non-concentrated mind (无不定心)
(6) Without non-knowledge (of) equanimity (无不知舍心)
(7) Zeal (to deliver sentient beings) without reduction (欲无减)
(8) Diligence without reduction (精进无减)
(9) Thought (of the Dharma) without reduction (念无减)
(10) Wisdom without reduction (慧无减)
(11) Liberation without reduction (解脱无减)
(12) Knowledge and insight of liberation without reduction (解脱知见无减)
(13) All physical karmas according (with) wisdom practices (一切身业随智慧行)
(14) All verbal karmas according (with) wisdom practices (一切口业随智慧行)
(15) All mental karmas according (with) wisdom practices (一切意业随智慧行)
(16) Wisdom knowing past lives without obstructions (智慧知过去世无碍)
(17) Wisdom knowing future lives without obstructions (智慧知未来世无碍)
(18) Wisdom knowing present lives without obstructions (智慧知现在世无碍)]

F

Five Aggregates (五蕴):

(1)
Form (色)
(2)
Feelings (受)
(3)
Perception (想)
(4)
Mental Formation (行)
(5)
Consciousness (识)

The Five Aggregates’ Blazing’s Suffering (五阴炽盛苦) are dissatisfactions from the Five Aggregates (五蕴) (as below) gathering (集聚) to become the body and mind (身心), like fire burning fiercely (炽燃), then giving rise to the seven other sufferings below. (i) With forms’ aggregate blazing (色阴炽盛), the four great elements (四大) (of earth, water, fire and wind) (地水火风) are not harmonised (不调), then having the suffering of sickness (病苦). (ii) With feelings’ aggregate blazing (受阴炽盛), differentiating (分别) with attachments and aversions, then increasing all other sufferings. (iii) With perceptions’ aggregate blazing (想阴炽盛), according to perceptions seeking, then having the sufferings of separation from the beloved (爱别离), meeting the hated (怨憎会), and not attaining the sought (求不得). (iv) With mental formations’ aggregate blazing (行阴炽盛), creating all karmas, then having the sufferings of ageing (and weakening) (老苦). (v) With consciousness’ aggregate blazing (识阴炽盛), giving rise to confusions, then having the sufferings of birth (生) and death (死) (i.e. rebirth).

The Five Desires (五欲) are for (i) wealth, (ii) sex, (iii) fame, (iv) food and (v) sleep (财色名食睡).

The Five Heinous Transgressions (五逆罪) are (i) killing of father (杀父), (ii) killing of mother (杀母), (iii) killing of Arhat (杀阿罗汉), (iv) causing Buddha’s body to bleed (出佛身血), and (v) breaking up the harmonious Saṃgha (破和合僧).

The Five Precepts (五戒) are basic moral guidelines to (i) not kill lives (不杀生), (ii) not steal (不偷盗), (iii) not have sexual misconduct (不邪淫), (iv) not have false speech (不妄语) and (v) not drink alcohol (不饮酒).

Five Roots (五根):

(1) Faith Root (信根)
(2) Diligence Root (精进根)
(3) Mindfulness Root (念根)
(4) Concentration Root (定根)
(5) Wisdom Root (慧根)

The Five Roots (无根) in terms of the senses are the (i) eye, (ii) ear, (iii) nose, (iv) tongue and (v) body (眼耳鼻舌身).

Five Powers (五力):

(1) Faith Power (信力)
(2) Diligence Power (精进力)
(3) Mindfulness Power (念力)
(4) Concentration Power (定力)
(5) Wisdom Power (慧力)

Four Fearlessnesses (四无所畏):

(1) (With) all-(knowing) wisdom, without that (to) fear (一切智无所畏) (i.e. fearlessness in declaration of having attained omniscience); (Unsurpassable) Right (And) Equal (Right) Awakening’s fearlessness (正等觉无畏)
(2)
(With) outflows exhausted, without that (to) fear (漏尽无所畏) (i.e. having perfect virtues)
(3)
(With) speaking (of) obstacles (of the) path [to Buddhahood for overcoming them], without that (to) fear (说障道无所畏) (i.e. ‘maxipotence’: maximum potency)
(4)
(With) speaking (of the) end (of) suffering’s path [to attain complete liberation], without that (to) fear (说尽苦道无所畏) (i.e. omnibenevolence)

Four Gathering Methods (四摄法):

(1) (With) Generosity gathering (布施摄)
(2) (With) Loving speech gathering (爱语摄)
(3) (With) Beneficial practices gathering (利行摄)
(4) (With doing of) Same matters gathering (同事摄)

Four Immeasurable Minds (四无量心):

(1) Loving-kindness (慈)
(2) Compassion (悲)
(3) Rejoice (喜)
(4) Equanimity (舍)

The Four Māras (which means ‘Killers’ or ‘Demons’) (四魔/罗) are those who ‘kill’ our spiritual progress. They include (1) afflictions’ māras (烦恼魔) from the three poisons (三毒) of greed, anger and delusion (贪嗔痴), (2) aggregates’ māras (阴魔) from clinging to the five aggregates (五蕴) of form, feelings, perception, mental formations and consciousness (色受想行识) as self (我), (3) death’s māra (死魔) that cuts short our lives and creates fear, and (4) Ease Heaven’s Māra (自在天魔), who is Ease Heaven’s King (自在天王), the ‘ruler’ of Desire Realm (欲界) in its Sixth Heaven (第六天), also known as Pāpīyāms (波旬), which means the Evil One.

Four Mindfulness Foundations (四念处):

(1)
Contemplation (of) body (as) impure (观身不净)
(2) Contemplation (of) feelings (to) be suffering (观受是苦)
(3) Contemplation (of) mind (to be) impermanent (观心无常)
(4) Contemplation (of) dharmas (to be) non-self (观法无我)

Four Noble Truths (四圣谛):

(1) First Noble Truth of Suffering (第一苦圣谛), which are the Eight Sufferings (八苦).
(2) Second Noble Truth of the Cause of Suffering (第二集圣谛), from Accumulation (集) of the Three Poisons (三毒).
(3) Third Noble Truth of the End of Suffering (第三灭圣谛), which is Nirvāṇa (涅槃).
(4) Fourth Noble Truth of the Path to the End of Suffering (第四道圣谛), which is the Noble Eightfold Path (八正道).

The Four Offerings (四供养) for monastics are (i) food and drink (饮食), (ii) robes (衣服), (iii) bedding (卧具) and (iv) medicine (汤药).

Four Power Bases (四神足):

(1) Zeal Power Base (欲神足)
(2) Diligence Power Base (勤神足)
(3) Mind Power Base (心神足)
(4) Contemplation Power Base (观神足)

Four Right Diligences (Efforts) (四正勤):

(1)
(Of) already arisen evil, enable (it to be) severed (已生恶令断),
(2) (Of) yet arisen evil, (do) not enable (it to) arise (未生恶不令生),
(3) (Of) yet arisen good, enable (it to) arise, (未生善令生), and
(4) (Of) already arisen good, enable (it to) increase (and) grow (已生善令增长).

Five-Part Dharma Body (五分法身) of the Buddhas:

(1) Precepts (戒)
(2) Concentration (定)
(3) Wisdom (慧)
(4) Liberation (解脱)
(5) Liberation’s knowledge with insight (解脱知见)

The first three form the Threefold Learning (三学) for liberation (解脱) and liberation’s knowledge with insight (解脱知见), thus complete with practice (理) and principle (事). The first three form cultivation’s causes (修因) and the next two form the resulting fruits (结果).

Five Paths (五道):

(1) Hell Path (地狱道)
(2) Hungry Ghost Path (饿鬼道)
(3) Animal Path (畜生道)
(4) Human Path (人道)
(5) Heavenly Path (天道)

The Five Paths (五道) are essentially the same as the Six Paths (六道) of rebirth, which has the ‘additional’ Asura Path (阿修罗道). They are similar as this path can also arise within any of the other Five Paths.

The Five Sufferings (五苦) are the (i) Physical Sufferings (身苦) of (1) birth (生), (2) ageing (老), (3) sickness (病) and (4) death (死), and the Mental Sufferings (心苦) of (ii) separation from the beloved (爱别离), (iii) meeting the hated (怨憎会), (iv) not attaining the sought (求不得) and (v) blazing of the Five Aggregates (五蕴炽盛) (of forms [色], feelings [受], perceptions [想], mental formations [行] and consciousness [识]).

Five Supernormal Powers (五神通/五通):

(1) Heavenly eye’s supernormal power (天眼通)
(2) Heavenly ear’s supernormal power (天耳通)
(3) Knowledge of others’ thoughts’ supernormal power (他心通)
(4) Supernormal flight’s power (神足通)
(5) Knowledge of past lives’ supernormal power (宿命通)

Without the sixth supernormal power, which is (6) Outflows’ ending’s supernormal power (漏尽通), those with the Five Supernormal Powers only are not yet liberated. It is possible for some from external paths (外道) to attain some of the Five Supernormal Powers, but impossible for them to attain the sixth supernormal power if they do not learn, practise and realise the Buddha’s Dharma teachings, unless they are Those By Conditions Awakened (缘觉), who realise that aligned to the Dharma by themselves. [See Six Supernormal Powers (六神通/六通) too.]

G

H

Heavenly Beings’ And Dragons’ Eight Divisions (天龙八部):

(1)
Deva (Heavenly Being) (天)
(2) Nāga (Dragon) (龙)
(3) Yakṣa (夜叉)
(4) Gandharva (干闼婆)
(5) Asura (阿修罗)
(6) Garuḍa (迦楼罗)
(7) Kiṁnara (紧那罗)
(8) Mahoraga (摩睺罗伽)

I

J

K

A Kalpa (劫) is an inconceivably long period of time; one world cycle: time for a world system to be formed and destroyed, about 1,334,000.000 (1.3 trillion) years.

A Koṭi (亿) is about 10,000,000, a unit of 10 million.

L

M

Māra (魔怨/魔罗) is the Desire Realm‘s (欲界) Sixth Heaven‘s (第六天) lord, the embodiment of death (死亡) and greedy desires (贪欲) that distract from liberation (解脱) from rebirth (轮回). He is the outer Māra, while the inner Māra (i.e. inner or mental demon/s: 心魔) refers to one’s Three Poisons (三毒), from which afflictions (烦恼) arise. One who has conquered one’s inner Māra is equivalent to one who has conquered all outer Māras.

N

Nine Realms (九界) are the Ten (Dharma) Realms (十[法]界) without the Buddhas’ realm (佛界). They are the Six Ordinary Realms (六凡) and Four Noble (Enlightened) Realms (四圣). (The below is with the greater above, in descending order of spiritual greatness.)

Four Noble Realms (四圣):

(10) Buddhas (佛[陀])
(9) Bodhisattvas (菩[提萨]埵)
(8) Pratyekabuddhas (辟支佛) / Those By Conditions Awakened (缘觉) / Lone Awakeners (独觉)
(7) Voice-Hearers / Śrāvakas (声闻) / Arhats ([阿]罗汉)

Six Ordinary Realms (六凡):

(6) Heavenly Beings (天人)
(5) Asuras (阿修罗)
(4) Human Beings (人)
(3) Animals (畜生)
(2) Hungry Ghosts (饿鬼)
(1) Hell Beings (地狱众生)

O

What having outflows (有漏) refers to impure practices, thus still with the Three Poisons (三毒) flowing outwards from their practitioners, to defile their experiences and the worlds dwelled in.

P

Piśāca ghosts (毗舍闍鬼) are flesh-eating and shape-shifting demons.

Poṣadha (布萨) is the Saṃgha’s fortnightly confession, raising and repenting of faults, with recitation of Monastic Precepts (出家戒) and Bodhisattva Precepts by one representative, as practice reminders. This is also practised by lay Buddhists who are Bodhisattva Preceptors, without the Monastic Precepts.

Q

R

S

With some variations in definition, the conventional Saṃgha (僧) usually refers to the community of Buddhist monks and nuns, while the Noble Saṃgha (圣僧) is the enlightened fourfold assembly (四众) of monks, nuns, laymen and laywomen.

Seven Awakening Branches (七觉支):

(1) Selection (of) dharmas’ awakening branch (择法觉支)
(2) Diligence’s awakening branch (精进觉支)
(3) Joy’s awakening branch (喜觉支)
(4) Tranquillity’s awakening branch (轻安觉支)
(5) Renunciation’s awakening branch (舍觉支)
(6) Concentration’s awakening branch (定觉支)
(7) Mindfulness’ awakening branch (念觉支)

The Seven Heinous Transgressions (七逆罪) are (i) causing Buddha’s body to bleed (出佛身血), (ii) killing of father (杀父), (iii) killing of mother (杀母), (iv) killing of senior (venerable) monastic (杀和尚), (v) killing of Ācārya (杀阿阇梨), (vi) breaking up the karma and Dharma wheel-turning Saṃgha (破羯磨转法轮僧), and (vii) killing of noble persons (杀圣人). These five and seven transgressions lead to fall into the Uninterrupted Hell (无间地狱).

Six Consciousnesses (六识):

(13) Eye Consciousness (Sight) (眼识)
(14)
Ear Consciousness (Sound) (耳识)
(15)
Nose Consciousness (Smell) (鼻识)
(16)
Tongue Consciousness (Taste) (舌识)
(17)
Body Consciousness (Touch) (身识)
(18)
Mind Consciousness (Thought) (意识)

Six Objects (六境):

(7) Eye Object (of sight) (眼境)
(8)
Ear Object (of sound) (耳境)
(9)
Nose Object (of smell) (鼻境)
(10)
Tongue Object (of taste) (舌境)
(11)
Body Object (of touch) (身境)
(12)
Mind Object (of thought) (意境)

Six Paths (六道):

(1) Hell Path (地狱道)
(2) Hungry Ghost Path (饿鬼道)
(3) Animal Path (畜生道)
(4) Human Path (人道)
(5) Asura Path (阿修罗道)
(6) Heavenly Path (天道)

See also, Five Paths (五道).

Six Perfections (六度):

(1) Generosity (布施)
(2) Upholding Precepts (持戒)
(3) Patience (忍辱)
(4) Diligence (精进)
(5) Concentration (禅定)
(6) Wisdom (智慧)

Six Periods (六时):

Day’s Three Periods (昼三时):

(1) First Period: 6 pm – 10 pm: early night (初夜)
(2) Second Period: 10 pm – 2 am: middle of the night (中夜)
(3) Third Period: 2 am – 6 am: late night (后夜)

Night’s Three Periods (夜三时):

(4) Fourth Period: 6 am – 10 am: early morning (晨朝)
(5) Fifth Period: 10 am – 2 pm: middle of the day (日中)
(6) Sixth Period: 2 pm – 6 pm: end of the day (日末)

Six Roots (六根):

(1) Eye Root (眼根)
(2)
Ear Root (耳根)
(3)
Nose Root (鼻根)
(4)
Tongue Root (舌根)
(5)
Body Root (身根)
(6)
Mind Root (意根)

Six Supernormal Powers (六神通/六通):

(1) Heavenly eye’s supernormal power (天眼通)
(2) Heavenly ear’s supernormal power (天耳通)
(3) Knowledge of others’ thoughts’ supernormal power (他心通)
(4) Supernormal flight’s power (神足通)
(5) Knowledge of past lives’ supernormal power (宿命通)
(6) Outflows’ ending’s supernormal power (漏尽通)

[See Five Supernormal Powers (五神通/五通) too.]

T

Ten (Dharma) Realms (十[法]界):

The Six Ordinary Realms (六凡) and Four Noble (Enlightened) Realms (四圣):

Six Ordinary Realms (六凡):

(1) Hell Beings (地狱众生)
(2) Hungry Ghosts (饿鬼)
(3) Animals (畜生)
(4) Human Beings (人)
(5) Asuras (阿修罗)
(6) Heavenly Beings (天人)

Four Noble Realms (四圣):

(7) Voice-Hearers / Śrāvakas (声闻) / Arhats ([阿]罗汉)
(8) Pratyekabuddhas (辟支佛) / Those By Conditions Awakened (缘觉) / Lone Awakeners (独觉)
(9) Bodhisattvas (菩[提萨]埵)
(10) Buddhas (佛[陀])

Ten Directions (十方):

(1) Eastern Direction (东方)
(2) Southern Direction (南方)
(3) Western Direction (西方)
(4) Northern Direction (北方)
(5) Southeastern Direction (东南方)
(6) Northeastern direction (东北方)
(7) Southwestern Direction (西南方)
(8) Northwestern Direction (西北方)
(9) Above direction (上方)
(10) Below direction (下方)

Ten Evil Karmas (十恶业):

(1) Killing lives (杀生)
(2) Stealing (偷盗)
(3) Sexual misconduct (邪淫)
(4) False speech (妄语)
(5) Double-tongued speech (两舌)
(6) Abusive speech (恶口)
(7) Frivolous speech (绮语)
(8) Greedy desires (贪欲)
(9) Anger (嗔恚)
(10) False views (邪见)

Ten Powers (十力):

(1) Knowledge (of) right aspects’ (and) wrong aspects’ wisdom’s power (知是处非处智力); Right aspects’ (and) wrong aspects’ power (是处非处力)
(2) Knowledge (of) past, present (and) future karmic recompenses’ wisdom’s power (知过现未来业报智力); Karmas’ different ripenings’ wisdom’s power (业异熟智力); Karma power (业力)
(3) Knowledge (of) all meditations’, liberations’ (and) samādhis’ wisdom’s power (知诸禅解脱三昧智力); Concentrations’ wisdom’s power (定智力); Concentration power (定力)
(4) Knowledge (of) all roots’ superiorities’ (and) inferiorities’ wisdom’s power (知诸根胜劣智力); Root power (根力)
(5) Knowledge (of) all kinds (of) liberations’ wisdom’s power (知种种解智力); All kinds (of) desires’ wisdom’s power (种种欲智力); Desire power (欲力)
(6) Knowledge (of) all kinds (of) realms’ wisdom power (知种种界智力); (Habitual) nature’s wisdom’s power (性智力); Nature’s power (性力)
(7) Knowledge (of) all reached places’ (and) paths’ wisdom’s power (知一切至处道智力); Reached places’ (and) paths’ power (至处道力)
(8) Knowledge (of) past lives without outflows’ wisdom’s power (知宿命无漏智力); Past lives’ wisdom’s power (宿命智力)
(9) Knowledge (from) heavenly eye without obstructions’ wisdom’s power (知天眼无碍智力); Births’ (and) deaths’ wisdom’s power (生死智力); Heavenly eye power (天眼力)
(10) Knowledge (from) forever severing habits’ wisdom’s power (知永断习气智力); Outflows exhausted’s wisdom’s power (漏尽智力); Outflows exhausted’s power (漏尽力)

The Ten Precepts (十戒) are novice monastic moral guidelines to (i) not kill lives (不杀生), (ii) not steal (不偷盗), (iii) not have sexual conduct (不淫), (iv) not have false speech (不妄语), (v) not drink alcohol (不饮酒), (vi) not wear perfumes, flowers and garlands, apply fragrant oils on the body (不着香花鬘,不香油涂身), (vii) not sing, dance, have entertainment, go see or hear such (不歌舞倡伎,不往观听), (viii) not sit (and lie) on high, broad and big (chairs and) beds (不坐高广大床), (ix) have untimely eating (不非时食), and (x) not clutch money, gold, silver and treasured objects (不捉钱金银宝物).

Three Karmas (三业):

(1) Physical (Bodily) Karmas (身业)
(2) Verbal (Speech) Karmas (口业)
(3) Mental (Thought) Karmas (意业)

Threefold Learning (三学):

(1) Precepts Learning (戒学)
(2) Concentration Learning (定学)
(3) Wisdom Learning (慧学)

The Threefold Learning are needed for liberation (解脱).

Three Periods (三世/三际):

(1) Past period (过去世)
(2) Present period (现在世)
(3) Future period (未来世)

Three Poisons (三毒):

(1) Greed (贪) or attachment
(2) Anger (嗔) or aversion
(3) Delusion (痴) or ignorance

Three Realms (三界):

(1) Desire Realm (欲界)
(2) Form Realm (色界)
(3) Formless Realm (无色界)

Three Treasuries (三藏):

(1) Sūtra Treasury (经藏),
(2) Vinaya Treasury (律藏)
(3) Treatise Treasury (论藏)

Three Virtues (三德):

(1) Wisdom Virtue (智德),
(2) Kindness Virtue (恩德)
(3) Severing Afflictions Virtue (断德)

True Constant (真常):

True Suchness’ fundamental nature (真如本性) or Buddha-nature (佛性).

Twelve Bases (十二处): Six Roots (六根) and Six Objects (六境)

Twelve Causes And Conditions (十二因缘):

(1) Ignorance (无明)
(2) Mental Formation (Volition) (行)
(3) Consciousness (识)
(4) Name And Form (Mind And Matter) (名色)
(5) Six (Sense) Bases (六处)
(6) Contact (Touch) (触)
(7) Feeling (受)
(8) Craving (Greed) (爱)
(9) Clinging (Attachment) (取)
(10) Becoming (有)
(11) Birth (生)
(12) Ageing And Death (老死)

The cycle of the Twelve Causes And Conditions (十二因缘) are with the preceding link as a cause and condition for the next link. This is the process that sustains rebirth. With (8) Craving (爱) ceased, the cycle will be broken free from.

Twelve Divisions Of Sūtras (十二部经):

(1) Sūtra (long lines; prose) (长行)
(2) Geya (restatements of sūtra teachings with verses) (重颂)
(3) Gātha (solitary-arising; verses) (孤起)
(4) Itivṛttaka (parables) (譬喻)
(5) Nidāna (purposes, causes and conditions of propounding teachings and monastic precepts) (因缘)
(6) Udāna (that without being asked, as personally spoken by the Buddha) (无问自说)
(7) Jātaka (the Buddha’s past lives’ stories) (本生)
(8) Avadāna (others’ past lives’ matters) (本事)
(9) Adbhutadharma (that never before; rare; miraculous; marvellous matters) (未曾有)
(10) Vaipulya (right and vast; extensive) (方广)
(11) Upadeśa (discussions and debates) (论议)
(12) Vyākarana (predictions of disciples’ enlightenment) (授记)

U

Uninterrupted Hell (无间地狱): See Avīci Hell (阿鼻地狱)

V

W

X

Y

Z

Please be mindful of your speech, Amituofo!

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

error: Alert: Content is protected !!