General

Sanskrit And English Glossary Of The Pure Land Tradition 净土宗梵英文词汇

Sanskrit And English Glossary Of The Pure Land Tradition
净土宗梵英文词汇

(The list below, more particularly focused on that related to the Pure Land teachings in this website, will be expanded over time with more entries and details. For easy remembrance, the shortcut to this page is purelanders.com/glossary. Suggestions for improvement are welcomed.)

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The Bodhisattva Precepts (菩萨戒) are moral guidelines for avoiding doing of all evil for the sake of all beings, practising all good for the sake of all beings, and guiding all beings to Buddhahood.

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The Eight Difficulties (八难) are from not seeing a Buddha (见佛) to hear the Right Dharma (正法), which are the (i) difficulty of being in the hell path (在地狱难), (ii) difficulty of being in the hungry ghost path (在饿鬼难), (iii) difficulty of being in the animal path (在畜生难), (iv) difficulty of being in a long-life heaven (在长寿天难), (v) difficulty of being in border land’s Uttarakuru (在边地之郁单越难), (vi) difficulty of being blind, deaf and/or mute (盲聋喑哑难), (vii) difficulty of having worldly knowledge and intelligence to debate (世智辩聪难), and the (viii) difficulty of being born before a Buddha or after a Buddha (生在佛前佛后难). These difficulties arise from evil karmas, from breaking the precepts.

The Eight Precepts (八戒) are purification days’ (斋日) and retreat moral guidelines to (i) not kill lives (不杀生), (ii) not steal (不偷盗), (iii) not have sexual conduct (不淫), (iv) not have false speech (不妄语), (v) not drink alcohol (不饮酒), (vi) not wear perfumes, flowers and garlands, apply fragrant oils on the body (不着香花鬘,不香油涂身), (vii) not sit (and lie) on high, broad and big (chairs and) beds (不坐高广大床), sing, dance, have entertainment, go see or hear such (不歌舞倡伎,不往观听), and (viii) have untimely eating (不非时食).

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The Five Desires (五欲) are for (i) wealth, (ii) sex, (iii) fame, (iv) food and (v) sleep (财色名食睡).

The Five Heinous Transgressions (五逆罪) are (i) killing of father (杀父), (ii) killing of mother (杀母), (iii) killing of Arhat (杀阿罗汉), (iv) causing Buddha’s body to bleed (出佛身血), and (v) breaking up the harmonious Saṃgha (破和合僧).

The Five Precepts (五戒) are basic moral guidelines to (i) not kill lives (不杀生), (ii) not steal (不偷盗), (iii) not have sexual misconduct (不邪淫), (iv) not have false speech (不妄语) and (v) not drink alcohol (不饮酒).

The Five Roots (无根) in terms of the senses are the (i) eye, (ii) ear, (iii) nose, (iv) tongue and (v) body (眼耳鼻舌身).

The Four Offerings (四供养) for monastics are (i) food and drink (饮食), (ii) robes (衣服), (iii) bedding (卧具) and (iv) medicine (汤药).

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Poṣadha (布萨) is the Saṃgha’s fortnightly confession, raising and repenting of faults, with recitation of Monastic Precepts (出家戒) and Bodhisattva Precepts by one representative, as practice reminders. This is also practised by lay Buddhists who are Bodhisattva Preceptors, without the Monastic Precepts.

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With some variations in definition, the conventional Saṃgha (僧) usually refers to the community of Buddhist monks and nuns, while the Noble Saṃgha (圣僧) is the enlightened fourfold assembly (四众) of monks, nuns, laymen and laywomen.

The Seven Heinous Transgressions (七逆罪) are (i) causing Buddha’s body to bleed (出佛身血), (ii) killing of father (杀父), (iii) killing of mother (杀母), (iv) killing of senior (venerable) monastic (杀和尚), (v) killing of Ācārya (杀阿阇梨), (vi) breaking up the karma and Dharma wheel-turning Saṃgha (破羯磨转法轮僧), and (vii) killing of noble persons (杀圣人). These five and seven transgressions lead to fall into the Uninterrupted Hell (无间地狱).

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The Ten Precepts (十戒) are novice monastic moral guidelines to (i) not kill lives (不杀生), (ii) not steal (不偷盗), (iii) not have sexual conduct (不淫), (iv) not have false speech (不妄语), (v) not drink alcohol (不饮酒), (vi) not wear perfumes, flowers and garlands, apply fragrant oils on the body (不着香花鬘,不香油涂身), (vii) not sing, dance, have entertainment, go see or hear such (不歌舞倡伎,不往观听), (viii) not sit (and lie) on high, broad and big (chairs and) beds (不坐高广大床), (ix) have untimely eating (不非时食), and (x) not clutch money, gold, silver and treasured objects (不捉钱金银宝物).

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