Translations

The ‘Human’ Word’s Hidden & Profound Meaning Elucidated《人字发隐》

《人字发隐》
[The] ‘Human’ Word’s Hidden [And Profound Meaning] Elucidated

(民二十七年为一弟子说)
(People’s Republic’s 27th Year*, For One Disciple** Said)

序分 Preface

人为倮虫之长,身不过数尺,寿不过数旬,竟与高厚悠久莫测之天地,并称三才,其义何属。

Humans [are] as ‘uncovered worms’*** of birth, [with] bodies not more [than] several feet, [with] lifespans not more [than] several decades, yet with [the] high [and] thick, long-standing [and] unfathomable heaven [and] earth, together [are] named [as the] three powers. [Of] their meanings, what [do they] have?

正宗分 Main Teachings   

须知才者,德能之称。

[It] must [be] known [that] these powers, [are] names of virtuous abilities. 

天以普覆万物,生成化育为德能。


Heaven [is] with universal coverage [of the] ten thousand things, [with] producing [and] nourishing as [its] virtuous abilities.


地以普载万物,含养滋培为德能。


The earth [is] with universal carrying [of the] ten thousand things, [with] encompassing [and] nurturing as [its] virtuous abilities. 

[1] 人之德能 Virtuous Abilities Of Humans  

[i] 赞天地之化育 Praising Of Heaven’s [And] Earth’s Nourishment 
[ii] 继往圣 Succeeding [Of] Past Sages
[iii] 开来学 Opening [Up To] Future Learning  

人以赞天地之化育,继往圣,开来学为德能。

Humans [are] with praising of heaven’s [and] earth’s nourishment, succeeding [of] past sages’ [path, and] opening [up of paths to] future learning as [their] virtuous abilities.

设无人之德能,则天地之德能犹有所憾。


If without virtuous abilities of humans, thus [will] virtuous abilities of heaven [and] earth still have that regretful [of].


由得人参赞继开之德能,俾天地之德能,圆满充足,竖穷三际,横遍十方。


Due [to] attaining [of] humans’ virtuous abilities [of] praising [and] supporting, succeeding [and] opening, [they] enable [the] virtuous abilities of heaven [and] earth, [to be] complete [and] adequate, vertically exhausting [the] three periods****, [and] horizontally pervading [the] ten directions.*****   


人与天地并称三才者,此也。


[Of] humans, heaven and earth together named [as the] three powers, [is with] this [so].

[2] 人德四义 Human Virtues’ Four Righteous [Practices]       

人之德能,大端有四。

Of humans’ virtuous abilities, [there] are four great matters. 

[i] 仁也 Benevolence   

人者,仁也。

Those human, [have] benevolence.

[a] 仁慈 Benevolent Loving-Kindness
[b] 恻隐 Empathetic Compassion
[c] 自利 Self-Benefitting
[d] 利他 Benefitting Others  

仁慈恻隐,自利利他,故名为人。

[With] benevolent loving-kindness [and] empathetic compassion, self-benefitting [and] benefitting others, thus named as humans.

[ii] 忍也 Endurance  

人者,忍也。

Those human, [have] patience.

[a] 忍劳 Endurance [Of] Toil    
[b] 忍苦 Endurance [Of] Suffering 
[c] 担当大事 Taking Upon Themselves Great Matters   

忍劳忍苦,担当柱地撑天之事,故名为人。

[With] endurance [of] toil and endurance [of] suffering, taking upon themselves matters [of] supporting [the] earth [and] propping up [heaven], thus named as humans.

[iii] 任也 Responsibility  

人者,任也。

Those human, [have] responsibility.

[a] 孝 Filial Piety
[b] 悌 Sibling Piety [Or Brotherliness; Fraternal Duty]
[c] 忠 Loyalty
[d] 信 Trustworthiness
[e] 礼 Propriety [Or Courtesy]
[f] 义 Righteousness
[g] 廉 Integrity [Or Incorruptibility; Honesty; Frugality]
[h] 耻 [Moral] Shame 

力任孝、悌、忠、信、礼、义、廉、耻之八德,俾无所歉缺,故名为人。

Striving [to bear] responsibility, [for the] eight virtues of filial piety, sibling piety, loyalty, trustworthiness, propriety, righteousness, integrity [and] shame, enabling [them to be] without that lacking, thus named as humans.

[此八事,匹夫匹妇皆能为之。

[These eight matters, (are that) ordinary men (and) ordinary women all (are) capable of.

此乃参赞化育,继往开来,撑柱天地之大事。  

This indeed (is to) praise, support (and) nourish, (to) succeed (the) past (and) open up (to the) future, (undertaking the) great matter of supporting (and) propping up heaven (and) earth.     


若一疏忽,或亡一二,或八字俱亡,则成冒名之伪人,非与天地并名三才之真人矣。  


If (with) one neglected, or (with the) deaths (of) one (or) two, or (with the) eight words together dead, thus becomes (the) assuming (of) another name, of (being) as fake (or hypocritical) humans, not with heaven (and) earth together named (as the) three powers’ true humans. 


若能类推,则希圣希贤,学佛学祖,有余裕矣。]  


If able (to) reason accordingly, thus emulating sages (and) emulating (the) virtuous, learning (to be) Buddhas (and) learning (to be) Patriarchs, (they will) have abundance.]

[iv] 尽也 [With] Utmost [Done]  

人者,尽也。

Those human, [are with the] utmost [done].

[a] 尽儒道以敦伦 Utmost [Of The] Confucian Path With Harmonious Personal Relations [Walked]  
[b] 尽佛道以证心 Utmost [Of The] Buddhist Path With Realisation [Of] Mind [Walked] 

尽儒教伦常之道以敦伦,尽佛教心性之道以证心,故名为人。

[With] utmost [of the] path of Confucian teachings [on] proper humans relations with harmonious personal relations [walked, and] utmost [of the] path of [the] Buddhist teachings [on] mind-nature with realisation [of the] mind [walked], thus named as humans.

人之义,大矣哉。

Of humans’ righteous [practices, they are] great indeed.

流通分 Conclusion

[i] 普愿同伦担荷人之四义 Universally Wishing Similar Peers [To] Shoulder Responsibility [For] Humans’ Four Righteous [Practices]    

愿一切同伦,各各担荷人之四义,岂独吾国之幸,实天下万国之深幸也。

[I] Wish all similar peers, each and every one, [to] shoulder responsibility [for these] four righteous [practices] of humans. How can this be only [for the good] fortune of our nation, [when it is] truly [for the] profound [good] fortune of ten thousand nations? 

[ii] 回复诘难: 幸勿因人废言 Reply [To] Cross-Examination: Please [Do] Not, Because [Of One’s] Personality, Discard [One’s] Words

或曰,「汝作此说,汝能一一无憾否。」

Perhaps said, ‘You [having] made this statements, [are] you [are] able [to be, of] one by one [listed, be] without regrets or not?’

答曰,「鸟之将死,其鸣也哀。

[In] reply. ‘Of birds going to die, their singing [is] also mournful. 

人之将死,其言也善。

Of humans about to die, their speech [is] also good.

我悲我之一一有憾,冀一切同伦一一无憾,以免一一同伦,临寿终时,犹有如我无穷之深悲也。

I lament of mine [listed, being] one by one with regrets, hoping [that] all similar peers [be with] one by one without regrets, so as not to, [of] each and every one [of] similar peers, when approaching life’s end, similarly have boundless deep sorrow like me. 

君不见《未曾有因缘经》,野干说法,天帝释拜听乎。

[Have] you not seen [the] “Sūtra [On] Yet-To-Have Causes [And] Conditions” [i.e. Adbhutadharmparyāya Sūtra]? [When a] jackal****** spoke [the] Dharma, [even the] heavenly emperor Śakra prostrated [and] listened.

使尽大地人皆为天帝释,亦不至不许野干开口,君何得固执人我相而责我乎。

Even if all [of the] great earth’s humans, all became heavenly emperor Śakras, [they] also [will] not [go] so far, [as to] not allow [the] jackal [to] open [his] mouth. Why [do] you [then], have to [be] stubbornly [attached to] personalities’ forms and blame me?  

我知过矣,后不再说。」

I, knowing [my] faults already, later [will] no longer speak [on this].’

净土宗十三祖印光大师
Pure Land Tradition’s 13th Patriarch Great Master Yìnguāng

Notes:

*1938 C.E., when the Master was 78 years old at Líng Yán Shān Monastery (灵岩山寺), 2 years before his rebirth in Pure Land.
** Péng Mèng’ān’s (彭孟庵) son Péng Zhàonóng (彭兆农), with Dharma name (法名) of Kāiběn (开本), who took refuge through the Master.
*** Sentient beings without bodies with feathers, fur, scales or shells (身无羽毛鳞甲的’动物’).  
**** Of the past, present and future.
***** Of the four cardinal, four intermediate, below and above directions.
****** The future Śākyamuni Buddha, when reborn as a lowly animal in a previous life, which spoke the Dharma for Śakra and many other gods. 

相关经典:
Related Sūtra:

《未曾有因缘经》
Sūtra [On] Yet-To-Have Causes [And] Conditions
(Adbhutadharmparyāya Sūtra)
http://buddhism.lib.ntu.edu.tw/BDLM/sutra/chi_pdf/sutra9/T17n0754.pdf

Namo Amituofo : Translation and notes by Shen Shi’an

Please be mindful of your speech, Amituofo!

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

error: Content is protected !!