Sutras

Brahma Net Sūtra’s Bodhisattva Precepts’ Text: Ten Heavy Prātimokṣa Precepts: Ten Heavy Prohibitive Precepts《梵网经菩萨戒本》: 十重波罗提木叉: 十重禁戒

佛告诸佛子言:「有十重波罗提木叉。若受菩萨戒,不诵此戒者,非菩萨,非佛种子。我亦如是诵。

[Śākyamuni] Buddha told all [the] Buddhas’ [Bodhisattva] disciples, ‘[There] are Ten Heavy Prātimokṣa [Precepts]. If [there are] those [who have] received [these] Bodhisattva Precepts, [yet do] not recite these Precepts, [they are] not Bodhisattvas, not [with] Buddhas’ seed [for Buddhahood]. I likewise thus recite [them].

Note [1] Buddhas’ Bodhisattva Disciples: These are Buddhas’ ‘family’ of spiritual sons and daughters, who will ‘inherit’ the position of their spiritual ‘Fathers’ by practising the Bodhisattva path (菩萨道) to become Buddhas. To be Bodhisattvas, there has to be giving rise to Bodhi Mind (菩提心: Bodhicitta), the most noble spiritual aspiration possible, that vows to guide one and all to Buddhahood. While the Bodhi Mind can be seen as the skeletal framework for necessary practice, the Bodhisattva Precepts, which are also moral vows for Buddhahood form the fleshed out details, on the do’s and don’ts for the path. More on how Vows and Precepts are related can be seen at https://thedailyenlightenment.com/2017/04/how-are-vows-precepts-related.

Note [2] Ten Heavy Prātimokṣa Precepts: ‘Prātimokṣa’ means ‘towards liberation.’ These are the Ten Heavy (Primary) Bodhisattva Precepts (菩萨戒), to be followed by Forty-Eight Light (Secondary) Bodhisattva Precepts, for monastics to uphold as part of the Bodhisattva path, to further avoid evil and do good, and for guiding all beings with and to the Bodhisattva path. These following Precepts however, are also traditionally committed to by lay Bodhisattvas, with slightly different criteria where appropriate due to their household lives.

Note [3] Regular Recitation Of Precepts: These Precepts are recited twice each month, on the full (white) and new (black) moon days, on the 15th and 29th or 30th (if available) days. This practice is for reminding preceptors of their commitment to the Bodhisattva path, for reflection upon their transgressions, for repentance, remedial action and resolution to improve. This practice is so important that even those who had committed to these Precepts, but do not do so are not considered as practising Bodhisattvas, thus not ready for advancement towards Buddhahood. The Buddha too, despite already being fully enlightened and completely liberated, personally recites them, setting the perfect example to emphasise their importance.

一切菩萨已学,一切菩萨当学,一切菩萨今学。已略说菩萨波罗提木叉相貌,应当学,敬心奉持。」

All [past] Bodhisattvas [have] already learnt [them], all [future] Bodhisattvas will learn [them, and] all [present] Bodhisattvas [are] now learning them. [As] thereafter [to be] briefly spoken [are the] Bodhisattva Prātimokṣa [Precepts’] features, [you] should learn [them, and with the] reverent mind receive [and] uphold them.’

Note [4] Learn Well To Uphold Well: As all Bodhisattvas of the three periods (三世), in the past, present and future, have learnt, are learning and will learn to uphold these Precepts, so as to advance towards Buddhahood for the welfare of one and all, all aspiring Bodhisattvas and aspiring Buddhas should learn them, commit to them and master them.

Note [5] Extended Precepts: Although these Ten Heavy Precepts (十重戒) are somewhat similar to the Five Precepts (五戒) and the Ten Good (Wholesome) Karmas (十善业), they extend beyond them in scope, maximising their spirit and letter to fully avoid evil and do good, and for guiding all beings with and to the Bodhisattva path.

Note [6] Five Precepts (五戒):

(1) Not Killing Lives (不杀生)
(2) Not Stealing (不偷盗)
(3) Not Having Sexual Misconduct (不邪淫)
(4) Not Having False Speech (不妄语)
(5) Not Drinking Alcohol (不饮酒)

Note [7] Ten Good (Wholesome) Karmas (十善业):

(1) Not Killing Lives (不杀生)
(2) Not Stealing (不偷盗)
(3) Not Having Sexual Misconduct (不邪淫)
(4) Not Having False Speech (不妄语)
(5) Not Having Double-Tongued Speech (不两舌)
(6) Not Having Harsh Speech (不恶口)
(7) Not Having Frivolous Speech (不绮语)
(8) Not Having Greedy Desires (不贪欲)
(9) Not Having Anger (不嗔恚)
(10) Not Having Evil Views (不邪见)

Note [8] Primary Precepts: The Ten Heavy Precepts (十重戒) are primary as they lead the Ten Heavy And Forty-Eight Light Precepts (十重四十八轻戒). Together, they are All Buddhas’ Great Precepts (诸佛大戒) or All Buddhas’ Great Vehicle’s Precepts (一切诸佛大乘戒), which are Bright Light’s Vajra Treasure Precepts (光明金刚宝戒), all Buddhas’ fundamental source (一切佛本源), all Bodhisattvas’ fundamental source (一切菩萨本源), and form Buddha-nature’s seed (佛性种子).

They are thus called Buddha-nature’s Precepts (佛性戒), Buddha Precepts (佛戒), Buddhas’ Right Precepts (佛正戒), All Buddhas’ Dharma Precepts (诸佛法戒), All Buddhas’ Pure Precepts (诸佛净戒), Seven Buddhas’ Dharma Precepts (七佛法戒), Thousand Buddhas’ Great Precepts (千佛大戒) and Buddhas’ Prohibitive Precepts 佛禁戒).

They are also called Bodhisattva Precepts (菩萨戒) and Dharma Precepts (法戒), that ‘the three periods’ all sentient beings with their crowns receive, accept and uphold’ (三世一切众生顶戴受持), as they are All Sentient Beings’ Precepts (一切众生戒), with their fundamental source being their self-nature’s (i.e. Buddha-nature) purity’ (本源自性清净).

Note [9] Purification Of Poisons: Upon mindful study, it will be realised that all Precepts are broken only due to the Three Poisons (三毒) of greed, anger and delusion (贪嗔痴). As such, when the Precepts are understood for their rationale and observed well, they will curb the expression and growth of these poisons, which will otherwise create evil karmas (恶业) leading to suffering. Commitment to the Precepts also realigns us to our true nature, which is our Buddha-nature, the source of these Precepts. It is a practice for restoring our fundamental purity.

【第一杀戒】
[First (Heavy) Precept (Against) Killing]:

佛言:「若佛子,若自杀、教人杀、方便杀、赞叹杀、见作随喜,乃至咒杀、杀因、杀缘、杀法、杀业,乃至一切有命者,不得故杀。

[The] Buddha said, ‘If, [as] Buddhas’ [Bodhisattva] disciples, if [to] personally kill, instruct others [to] kill, [use] conveniences [to] kill, highly praise [those who] kill, see [killing] done [and] accordingly rejoice, and even [with] incantations kill, [with] killing’s causes, killing’s conditions, killing’s methods [and] killing’s actions, and even [for] all those with [sentient] life, [they] must not [be] intentionally killed.

Note [10]: Never Kill: This Precept is listed first as killing is the greatest harm that can be done to any sentient being. Bodhisattvas should never intentionally, directly or indirectly, kill or condone killing of sentient beings (including oneself) in any way.

The only exception is when there is absolutely no other way to save many others’ lives from someone harmful. For example, the Buddha as a compassionate captain once killed a person as a last resort, who was otherwise going to kill five hundred others, as can be seen at https://thedailyenlightenment.com/2011/07/the-compassionate-captains-skilful-means.

(In a sense, it was a form of self-sacrificial ‘suicide’ too, as he was ready for the negative karmic consequences, while not losing the big picture. The good karmas of saving many however, outweighed the evil karma of killing an evil one. It is with this spirit, that all these Precepts should be observed.)

Note [11]: Causes, Conditions, Methods And Actions: ‘Killing’s causes’ refer to the mind with greed, anger and delusion, ‘killing’s conditions’ refer to the time and place, ‘killing’s methods’ refer to procedures and instruments, and ‘killing’s actions’ refer to ending of sentient lives. It is with this understanding, that all these Precepts should be observed.)

是菩萨应起常住慈悲心、孝顺心,方便救护一切众生。

These Bodhisattvas should give rise [to and] constantly abide [in the] mind [of] loving-kindness [and] compassion, [and the] mind [of] filial piety, [to use] skilful means [to] save [and] protect all sentient beings.

Note [12]: Essence Of Bodhisattvas: Bodhisattvas are who they are because of their great loving-kindness and compassion. If beginner Bodhisattvas are still weak in these states of mind meant to be immeasurably cultivated, they should further practise empathy to nurture them, by remembering that all sentient beings, like themselves, crave to live and fear death.

As taught by the Buddha, since all beings have been reborn as our mothers before, we should be kind to all, which is to practise filial piety to repay their kindness. There should be use of more skilful means to save and protect, instead of conveniences to kill and harm.

而反自恣心快意杀生者,是菩萨波罗夷罪。

Yet, [of] those [who] instead, personally indulge [their] minds [in the] “pleasure” [of] killing [sentient] beings, [this] is [a] Bodhisattva’s parājika transgression.

Note [13]: Parājika Transgression: This is a moral defeat due to an extreme evil done, which is likened to having one’s head severed, that cannot be recovered from (unless there is thorough repentance and re-receiving of the Precepts to restore them).

Note [14]: Four Parājikas (四波罗夷): The Four Parājikas Transgressions (四波罗夷罪) monastics should not commit are the Four Root Nature’s Transgressions (四根本性罪) of (1) sexual conduct (as monastics have to be celibate), (2) killing, (3) stealing, and (4) lying about being enlightened (which is great false speech).

The committing of any of the above will lead to expulsion from the Saṃgha’s monastic community (僧团) and fall into hell. Even though lay Buddhists do not face the potential of expulsion from the monastic community, they should also be noted, as rebirth into hell is still possible with serious breaking of the Precepts.

However, in this sūtra’s context, breaking of the Ten Heavy Precepts (十重戒) are all parājika transgressions in terms of the Bodhisattva path. (Lay Buddhists are not expected to have no sexual conduct at all, although it is also possible to be celibate before and/or after marriage.)

(1) Do not personally kill.
(2) Do not instruct others to kill.
(3) Do not be with conveniences to kill.
(4) Do not praise those who kill.
(5) Do not rejoice for killing.
(6) Do not with incantations kill.
(7) Do not be with killing’s causes, conditions, methods and actions.
(8) Give rise to filial piety, loving-kindness and compassion to use skilful means to save and protect all sentient beings.

【第二盗戒】
[Second (Heavy) Precept (Against) Stealing]

若佛子,自盗、教人盗、方便盗、咒盗、盗因、盗缘、盗法、盗业,乃至鬼神有主,劫贼物,一切财物,一针一草,不得故盗。

If, [as] Buddhas’ [Bodhisattva] disciples, [to] personally steal, instruct others [to] steal, [use] conveniences [to] steal, [with] incantations steal, [with] stealing’s causes, stealing’s conditions, stealing’s methods [and] stealing’s actions, and even [that of] ghosts [and] gods with owners, [of] plundered [and] thieved things, all valuables [and] goods, and even one needle [or] one [blade of] grass, [they] must not [be] intentionally stolen.

Note [15]: Never Steal: This Precept is listed second as stealing is the second greatest harm that can be done to any sentient being, when personal belongings are personally taken without asking (不问自取). Even that which might belong to unseen beings like ghosts and gods, such as food offerings at ‘abandoned’ shrines should not be stolen.

That which does not seem to belong to anyone in particular because it belongs to everyone generally should not be stolen too, such as a park bench, which is public property, meant to be for all and not one’s private use only, by hogging it to end or taking it home.

Even a seemingly ‘naturally free’ item like a blade of grass in the same park should not be taken without permission, as the park on the whole is cared for by those responsible for its overall well-being, so that it can be used and enjoyed by all.

Likewise, even other small items deemed to be of not much value, such as a needle, should not be stolen. (If it is not valuable at all, why would one want to steal it?) Even ill-gotten cash and kind should not be re-stolen, although they should be reported to the law if located, so as to return them to their rightful owners.

而菩萨应生佛性孝顺心、慈悲心,常助一切人生福生乐。

And Bodhisattvas should give rise [to] Buddha-nature’s mind [of] filial piety, [and the] mind [of] loving-kindness [and] compassion, [to] constantly support all persons, [to] give rise [to] blessings [and] give rise [to] joy.

Note [16]: Buddha-Nature: When Bodhisattvas diligently align to their Buddha-nature, there should be natural expression of filial loving-kindness and compassion, to generously support all to give rise to joyful blessings. 

而反更盗人财物者,是菩萨波罗夷罪。

Yet, [of] those [who] instead, still steal others’ valuables [and] things, [this] is [a] Bodhisattva’s parājika transgression.

Note [17]: Deprivation: To instead deprive others of their blessings, to bring about sorrow of loss by stealing, this is surely against the Bodhisattva path and goal.

(9) Do not personally steal.
(10) Do not instruct others to steal.
(11) Do not with conveniences and incantations steal.
(12) Do not be with stealing’s causes, conditions, methods and actions.
(13) Give rise to filial piety, loving-kindness and compassion to constantly support all sentient beings, to give rise to blessings and joy.

【第三淫戒】
[Third (Heavy) Precept (Against) Sex]

若佛子,自淫、教人淫,乃至一切女人,不得故淫,淫因、淫缘、淫法、淫业,乃至畜生女、诸天鬼神女,及非道行淫。

If, [as] Buddhas’ [Bodhisattva] disciples, [to] personally [have] sex, instruct others [to have] sex, and even [with] all women, [they] must not intentionally [have] sex, [with] sex’s causes, sex’s conditions, sex’s methods [and] sex’s actions, and even [with] animals’ females, all heavenly, ghostly [and] godly females, and [with] wrong ways [of] having sex.

Note [18]: Never Have Sexual Mis/conduct: To offer proper sex education should be differentiated from encouraging others to have sex. For monastics (who are committed to celibacy), there must be no sexual conduct of any kind.

Expressing personal lust and encouraging others to have lust is to perpetuate the cycle of birth and death as without lust, as a primordial form of greed, there will be no rebirth. Even for laypersons, there should at least be regular restraint, such as on Purification Days (斋日), to practise for higher rebirths, rebirth in Pure Land and even liberation.

As commentaries explain, for laypersons, sexual conduct of any kind with non-spouses is considered as sexual misconduct, including pre-marital and extra-marital sex. This prevents promiscuity, heartbreaks and unwanted pregnancies. For laypersons, for this Precept to be observed completely, be it in this or a future life (including in Pure Land), there has to be total abstinence eventually.

Note [19]: Wrong Ways Of Having Sex: As commentaries explain, wrong ways of having sex include via alternative places (非处行淫), such as the mouth (口道) and anus (大便道), at holy places like temples and solemn places like cemeteries, in view of others, in excess, when pregnant, nursing, menstruating, sick, on Buddhas and Bodhisattvas’ anniversaries (佛菩萨纪念日), (such as birth, enlightenment and Parinirvāṇa days), parents’ birthdays, family members’ days of chanting services after death (荐亡之日), Six Purification Days (六斋日) and Three Purification Months’ (三斋月) days.

The constraints of sex prevent indulgence and keep lust in check, without which, ‘anything goes’, anywhere and at any time with anyone. They also lessen conditions for related diseases to be contracted and spread as promiscuous sex in the heat of passion tends to be unprotected.

Refraining from sex at holy and solemn places and times is to have reverence for noble beings and respect for the deceased. Refrain from sex on Purification Days and in Purification Months is to practise having periodical breaks from lustful thoughts, words and deeds, so as to spend more time and efforts on Dharma learning and practice.

Note [20]: Purification Days And Months: The Six Purification Days (六斋日) are every lunar month’s 8th, 14th, 15th, 23rd, 29th and 30th day (or 28th day for minor months [小月] without the 30th day).

For the more diligent, the (extended) Ten Purification Days (十斋日) are every lunar month’s 1st, 8th, 14th, 15th, 18th, 23rd, 24th, 28th, 29th and 30th day. There are also the Three Purification Months (三斋月), which are the 1st, 5th and 9th lunar months.

On these ‘days’, for one day and night (一日一夜), there are practices of eating as veg(etari)ans (吃素), also observing the Eight Precepts (八戒) of abstaining from (1) killing lives (不杀生), (2) stealing (不偷盗), (3) sexual conduct (不淫), (4) false speech (不妄语), (5) drinking alcohol (i.e. consuming intoxicants) (不饮酒), (6) wearing perfumes, flowers and garlands, applying fragrant oils on the body (不着香花鬘,不香油涂身), (7) sitting (and lying) on high, broad and big (chairs and) beds (不坐高广大床), singing, dancing, having entertainment, going to see or hear such (不歌舞倡伎,不往观听), and (8) untimely eating (不非时食) after noon.

而菩萨应生孝顺心,救度一切众生,净法与人。 

And Bodhisattvas should give rise [to the] mind [of] filial piety, [to] save [and] deliver all sentient beings, [with the] pure Dharma given [to] others.

Note [21]: Love, Not Lust: Bodhisattvas should offer the Dharma purely out of concern to benefit others; not out of lust or other motives.

而反更起一切人淫,不择畜生,乃至母女姐妹六亲行淫,无慈悲心者,是菩萨波罗夷罪。

Yet, [of] those [who] instead, still give rise [to] sex [with] all humans, not differentiating [with] animals, and even [with] mothers, daughters, sisters, [and the] six close relatives having sex, [of] these without [the] mind [of] loving-kindness [and] compassion, [this] is [a] Bodhisattva’s parājika transgression.

Note [22]: Promiscuity, Bestiality And Incest: To have sex with many humans is to be lustfully promiscuous, leading to less time and efforts on furthering the spiritual life. To have sex with animals is have bestiality, which is rape of animals, a form of animal abuse. To have sex with close relatives is to have incest.

Note [23]: Six Close Relatives:The six close relatives are (1) fathers, (2) mothers, (3) older brothers (and sisters), (4) younger brothers (and sisters), (5) wife (and husband), and (6) male children. This is a catch-all term for all close relatives. Sex with them corrupts and complicates otherwise appropriate and harmonious relationships, also possibly leading to offspring with birth defects, thus increasing suffering.

(14) Do not personally have sexual mis/conduct.
(15) Do not instruct others to have sexual mis/conduct.
(16) Do not be with sexual mis/conduct’s causes, conditions, methods and actions.
(17) Give rise to filial piety, loving-kindness and compassion to save and deliver all sentient beings by giving the pure Dharma.

【第四妄语戒】
[Fourth (Heavy) Precept (Against) False Speech]

若佛子,自妄语、教人妄语、方便妄语、妄语因、妄语缘、妄语法、妄语业,乃至不见言见,见言不见,身心妄语。

If, [as] Buddhas’ [Bodhisattva] disciples, [they should not] personally [have] false speech, instruct others [to have] false speech, [use] conveniences [to have] false speech, [with] false speech’s causes, false speech’s conditions, false speech’s methods [and] false speech’s actions, and even [with that] not seen said [as] seen, [and that] seen said [as] not seen, [with] body [and] mind [have] false speech.

Note [24] Never Have False Speech: As Bodhisattvas strive to realise truths, they should never be untruthful to themselves and others, which is to be misaligned from truthfulness.

而菩萨常生正语正见,亦生一切众生正语正见。

And Bodhisattvas [should] constantly give rise [to] Right Speech [and] Right Views, also giving rise [to] all sentient beings’ Right Speech [and] Right Views.

Note [25] Truthfulness: Bodhisattvas should also strive to share truths, and encourage others to be truthful to themselves and others, which is to be aligned with truthfulness.

而反更起一切众生邪语、邪见、邪业者,是菩萨波罗夷罪。

Yet, [of] those [who] instead, still give rise [to] wrong speech, wrong views [and] wrong actions, [this] is [a] Bodhisattva’s parājika transgression.

Note [26] Falsehood: Even if not encouraging truthfulness more actively, there should not be active encouraging of falsehood, as Bodhisattvas are supposed to maintain truthfulness. More considerations on this and other related Precepts can be seen at: https://thedailyenlightenment.com/2017/06/are-all-in-monastic-robes-beyond-question.

(18) Do not have personally have false speech, not with body and mind too.
(19) Do not instruct others to have false speech, not with body and mind too.
(20) Do not with conveniences have false speech, not with body and mind too.
(21) Do not be with false speech’s causes, conditions, methods and actions.
(22) Constantly personally give rise to Right Speech, Right Views and Right Actions.
(23) Constantly give rise to all sentient beings’ Right Speech and Right Views.

【第五酤酒戒】
[Fifth (Heavy) Precept (Against) Buying (And) Selling (Of) Alcohol(ic Beverages)]  

若佛子,自酤酒、教人酤酒、酤酒因、酤酒缘、酤酒法、酤酒业,一切酒不得酤,是酒起罪因缘。

If, [as] Buddhas’ [Bodhisattva] disciples, [they should not] personally buy [and] sell alcohol[ic beverages], instruct others [to] buy [and] sell alcohol[ic beverages, with] buying [and] selling alcohol[ic beverages]’ causes, buying [and] selling alcohol[ic beverages]’ conditions, buying [and] selling alcohol[ic beverages]’ methods [and] buying [and] selling alcohol[ic beverages]’ actions, all alcohol[ic beverages] should not [be] bought [or] sold, [as] alcohol[ic beverages are] causes [and] conditions [for] giving rise [to] transgressions.

Note [27] Never Buy And Sell Alcohol: As Bodhisattvas strive to protect clarity of mind, they should never encourage the (potential) intoxication of themselves and others, which is to be misaligned from mindfulness.

而菩萨应生一切众生明达之慧。

And Bodhisattvas should give rise [to] all sentient beings’ clear understanding of wisdom.

Note [28] Clarity Of Mind: Bodhisattvas should also strive to increase and perfect clarity of mind for realising truths, and encourage others to do so too, which is to be aligned with mindfulness.

而反更生一切众生颠倒之心者,是菩萨波罗夷罪。

Yet, [of] those [who] instead, still give rise [to] all sentient beings’ minds of invertedness, [this] is [a] Bodhisattva’s parājika transgression.

Note [29] Invertedness: Even if not encouraging clarity of mind more actively, there should not be active encouraging of invertedness (in terms of delusions and confusions), as Bodhisattvas are supposed to maintain uprightness of mind. More considerations on this Precept and on consuming alcoholic beverages (and foods) can be seen at: https://thedailyenlightenment.com/2016/08/why-avoidance-of-alcohol-is-so-important.

(24) Do not personally buy and sell alcoholic beverages.
(25) Do not instruct others buy and sell alcoholic beverages.
(26) Do not be with buying and selling alcoholic beverages’ causes, conditions, methods and actions.
(27) Give rise to all sentient beings’ clear understanding of wisdom.
(28) Do not give rise to all sentient beings’ inverted minds.

【第六说四众过戒】
[Sixth (Heavy) Precept (Against) Speaking (Of) Four Assemblies’ Transgressions]

若佛子,口自说出家、在家菩萨、比丘比丘尼罪过、教人说罪过、罪过因、罪过缘、罪过法、罪过业。

If, [as] Buddhas’ [Bodhisattva] disciples, [they should not, with their] mouths personally speak [of] renounced [and] lay Bodhisattvas’, Bhikṣus [and] Bhikṣuṇīs’ transgressions, [to] instruct others [to] speak [of their] transgressions, [with] transgressions’ causes, transgressions’ conditions, transgressions’ methods [and] transgressions’ actions.

Note [30] Renounced And Lay Bodhisattvas: Renounced Bodhisattvas are Buddhist monks and nuns who have left the household life, who have committed to the Bodhisattva Precepts. Lay Bodhisattvas are Buddhist laymen and laywomen who are in the household life, who have committed to the Bodhisattva Precepts.

Note [31] Bhikṣus And Bhikṣuṇīs: These above refer to Buddhist monks and nuns yet to commit to the Bodhisattva Precepts, thus not being ‘renouced Bodhisattvas.’

Note [32] Four Assemblies: These are Bhikṣus and Bhikṣuṇīs, with Upāsakas (优婆塞: laymen) and Upāsikās (优婆夷: laywomen), who have and have yet to commit to the Bodhisattva Precepts.

Note [33] Never Speak Of Four Assemblies’ Transgressions: These should not be spoken, especially to those who do not understand them, because this can decrease their faith and reverence for Buddhism on the whole by (partial and thus unfair) association. While there should not be fussing over persons with transgressions, if questions of the transgressions arise, they should be discussed fairly to prevent confusion, so as to ensure there are Right Views (正见) on Precepts shared. There should also be recognition that non-Buddhas are not morally perfect, still works in progress, as long as they repent sincerely and strive on diligently.

而菩萨闻外道恶人,及二乘恶人,说佛法中非法非律,常生慈心,教化是恶人辈,令生大乘善信。

And Bodhisattvas, [when] hearing external paths’ evil persons, and [the] Two Vehicles’ evil persons, speak [of those] within [the] Buddha’s teachings, [to] not [be with the] Dharma [and] not [with the] Discipline, [they should] constantly give rise [to the] mind [of] loving-kindness, [to] teach [and] transform these kinds [of] evil persons, [to] enable [them to] give rise [to the] Great Vehicle’s devoted [good] faith.

Note [34] External Paths’ Evil Persons: External paths are wrong teachings that lead outwards, away from realisation of Buddha-nature (佛性) within. Evil persons are those who do not accord with the Precepts, whether they have committed to them or not.

Note [35] Two Vehicles’ Evil Persons: Those aspiring for self-liberation as Arhats (阿罗汉) and Pratyekabuddhas (辟支佛), who have wrong views of the Bodhisattva path to Buddhahood. The Two Vehicles are also form the Small Vehicle (小乘) as their goal is self-liberation, focused on delivering themselves.

Note [36] Compassionate Guidance To The Great Vehicle: When encountering evil persons above, who slander the Buddha’s Great Vehicle teachings (that deliver one and all to Buddhahood), as not being aligned to the Dharma (truth) and Discipline (Vinaya: Precepts and rules), there should be compassionate correction and guidance of them, to have Right Views and Right Faith (正信).

而菩萨反更自说佛法中罪过者,是菩萨波罗夷罪。

Yet, [of] Bodhisattvas, [who] instead, still personally speak [of] those [with] transgressions within [the] Buddha’s teachings, [this] is [a] Bodhisattva’s parājika transgression.

Note [37] Speak To Help: If even the Small Vehicle’s Buddhists who speak against the Great Vehicle’s teachings should not be spoken ill of, the Great Vehicle’s Buddhists should all the more not be spoken ill of. To speak of their transgressions does no good as they will still not know how they are wrong, and what is right, while only harming them and the reputation of Buddhism on the whole. More considerations on this and other related Precepts can be seen at: https://thedailyenlightenment.com/2017/06/are-all-in-monastic-robes-beyond-question and https://thedailyenlightenment.com/2022/11/how-to-neither-gossip-nor-slander.

(29) Do not personally speak of renounced and lay Bodhisattvas’, Bhikṣus and Bhikṣuṇīs’ transgressions.
(30) Do not instruct others to speak of renounced and lay Bodhisattvas’, Bhikṣus and Bhikṣuṇīs’ transgressions.
(31)
Do not be with speaking of their transgressions’ causes, conditions, methods and actions.
(32) Constantly give rise loving-kindness, to teach and transform, to give rise to devoted good faith in the Great Vehicle.

【第七自赞毁他戒】
[Seventh (Heavy) Precept (Against) Self-Praising (And) Slandering (Of) Others]

若佛子,自赞毁他、亦教人自赞毁他、毁他因、毁他缘、毁他法、毁他业。

If, [as] Buddhas’ [Bodhisattva] disciples, [they should not] self-praise [and] slander others, also instruct others [to] self-praise [and] slander others, [with] slander [of] others’ causes, slander [of] others’ conditions, slander [of] others’ methods [and] slander [of] others’ actions.

Note [38] Never Be Arrogant Or Slander: As Bodhisattvas should be personally humble, to better learn and practise the Dharma, and protect others, even if they do not learn and practise the Dharma well or at all, they should never self-praise to express arrogance or slander others to disparage them. (To slander is to harm others with false speech. See Fourth Heavy Precept Against False Speech too.)

而菩萨应代一切众生受加毁辱,恶事向自己,好事与他人。

And Bodhisattvas should represent all sentient beings, [to] receive inflicted slander [and] insults, [with] evil deeds directed [towards] themselves, [and] good deeds’ [credits] given [to] other persons.

Note [39] Substitution And Dedication: Karmically, although it is not possible to substitute others to experience their suffering, Bodhisattvas should have this compassionate attitude, to be willing to do this. For meritorious virtues (功德) created however, one part out of seven can be dedicated to others.

若自扬己德,隐他人好事,令他人受毁者,是菩萨波罗夷罪。

If [as] those [who] personally propagate [their] own virtues, conceal other persons’ good deeds, [and] enable other persons [to] receive slander, [this] is [a] Bodhisattva’s parājika transgression.

Note [40] Humility And Goodness: Bodhisattvas should instead conceal their own virtues, so as to practise humility, propagate other persons’ good deeds and enable other persons to receive praise, so as to promote goodness. More considerations on this and other related Precepts can be seen at: https://thedailyenlightenment.com/2017/06/are-all-in-monastic-robes-beyond-question and https://thedailyenlightenment.com/2022/11/how-to-neither-gossip-nor-slander.

(33) Do not self-praise and slander others.
(34) Do not instruct others to self-praise and slander others.
(35)
Do not be with self-praise and slander of others’ causes, conditions, methods and actions.
(36) Represent all sentient beings to receive slander, insults and evil deeds.
(37) Do credit good deeds to others.
(38) Do not propagate personal virtues and conceal others’ good deeds.

【第八悭惜加毁戒】
[Eighth (Heavy) Precept (Against With) Miserliness (And) Begrudgingness Inflicting Slander]

若佛子,自悭、教人悭、悭因、悭缘、悭法、悭业,

If, [as] Buddhas’ [Bodhisattva] disciples, [they should not] personally [be] miserly, instruct others [to be] miserly, [with] miserliness’ causes, miserliness’ conditions, miserliness’ methods [and] miserliness’ actions.

Note [41] Never Be Miserly: As Bodhisattvas should be generous spiritually with giving of the Dharma and fearlessness (with comforting and consoling), and materially (with cash and kind to the needy), they should never be stingy.

而菩萨见一切贫穷人来乞者,随前人所须,一切给与。

And [when] Bodhisattvas see all poor persons coming [to] beg, according [to] those needs [of these] persons before [them], all [should be] given.

Note [42] Stretching Of Generosity: All that can be afforded to be given should be given to those in need appropriately. This is the practice of stretching generosity.

而菩萨以恶心瞋心,乃至不施一钱一针一草;有求法者,不为说一句、一偈、一微尘许法,而反更骂辱者,是菩萨波罗夷罪。

Yet, Bodhisattvas, with evil minds [and] angry minds, and even not giving one coin, one needle, [or] one [blade of] grass, [and to] those with seeking [of the] Dharma, not for [them] speaking one line, one verse, [as] little [as] one fine [mote of] dust [of the] Dharma, and instead, still scolding [and] insulting [them, this] is [a] Bodhisattva’s parājika transgression.

Note [43] Perfection Of Generosity: Even if Bodhisattvas cannot give much due to current spiritual and material constraints, they should work towards being more giving, till they are completely giving, so as to perfect Generosity eventually.

(39) Do not personally be miserly.
(40) Do not instruct others to be miserly.
(41) Do not be with miserliness’ causes, conditions, methods and actions.
(42) Give all needed to all the needy.
(43) Give the Dharma, without anger, scolding and insulting.

【第九瞋心不受悔戒】
[Ninth (Heavy) Precept (Against) Angry Minds Not Accepting Repentance]

若佛子,自瞋、教人瞋、瞋因、瞋缘、瞋法、瞋业。

If, [as] Buddhas’ [Bodhisattva] disciples, [they should not] personally [be] angry, instruct others [to be] angry, [with] anger’s causes, anger’s conditions, anger’s methods [and] anger’s actions.

Note [44] Never Be Angry: As Bodhisattvas should be calm, patient, kind and compassionate, they should never be angry towards all other sentient beings, whom they are trying to guide to Buddhahood. Anger (or hatred) is the most swiftly destructive of the three poisons too. As the saying goes, ‘With one though of the mind of anger arising, like a fire, it is able to burn away a forest of meritorious virtues’ (一念嗔心起,火烧功德林).

而菩萨应生一切众生善根无诤之事,常生慈悲心、孝顺心。

And Bodhisattvas should give rise [to, for] all sentient beings, practices of good roots without contention, [and] constantly give rise [to the] mind [of] loving-kindness [and] compassion, [and the] mind [of] filial piety.

Note [45] Good Roots: Bodhisattvas should nurture the good roots of themselves and others harmoniously for the welfare of one and all. This is while anger can burn away a forest of meritorious virtues, including their trees’ (good) roots.

而反更于一切众生中,乃至于非众生中,以恶口骂辱,加以手打,及以刀杖,意犹不息。前人求悔,善言忏谢,犹瞋不解者,是菩萨波罗夷罪。

Yet, [to] instead, still, within all sentient beings, and even within non-sentient beings, with harsh speech scolding [and] insulting, additionally [with] hands beating, and with knives [and] staves, [with this] mind still not stopping, [and when these] persons before [them] seek repentance, [with] good words remorsefully apologise, [of] those still [with] anger not dissipated, [this] is [a] Bodhisattva’s parājika transgression.

Note [46] Non-Violence And Forgiveness: Bodhisattvas should not give rise to anger, what more hateful words, and even violent actions, with or without weapons. They should not be unforgiving, even to those who have yet to apologise due to their strong delusion and arrogance. More considerations on this and other related Precepts can be seen at: https://thedailyenlightenment.com/2017/06/are-all-in-monastic-robes-beyond-question and https://thedailyenlightenment.com/2015/02/does-being-angry-break-any-buddhist-precept.

(44) Do not personally be angry.
(45) Do not instruct others to be angry.
(46)
Do not be with anger’s causes, conditions, methods and actions.
(47) Give rise to practices of good roots without contention for all sentient beings.
(48) Constantly give rise to filial piety, loving-kindness and compassion.
(49) Do not scold, insult and beat sentient and non-sentient beings.
(50) Do not, when others apologise, still be angry.

【第十谤三宝戒】
[Tenth (Heavy) Precept (Against) Slandering (The) Triple Gem]

若佛子,自谤三宝、教人谤三宝、谤因、谤缘、谤法、谤业。

If, [as] Buddhas’ [Bodhisattva] disciples, [they should not] personally slander [the] Triple Gem, instruct others [to] slander [the] Triple Gem, [with] slander’s causes, slander’s conditions, slander’s methods [and] slander’s actions.

Note [47] Never Slander The Triple Gem: As beginner Bodhisattvas are supposed to have ever deepening refuge in the Triple Gem (of the Buddhas, Dharma and Saṃgha: 佛法僧) till they become one with it, to slander the Triple Gem is as if to lose their Threefold Refuge (三皈依), to turn back on the Bodhisattva path to become like those of external paths.

而菩萨见外道,及以恶人,一言谤佛音声,如三百矛刺心,况口自谤?

And Bodhisattvas, [when] seeing [those of] external paths, and with evil persons, [with the] sound [of] one word slandering [the] Buddha, [this is] like three hundred spears piercing [their] hearts, how much more [if with their] mouths personally slandering?

Note [48] Protection Of The Triple Gem: Bodhisattvas should instinctively protect the Triple Gem, as it is their most precious refuge, instead of slandering it mindlessly, which would make them equivalent to external paths’ evil persons.

不生信心、孝顺心,而反更助恶人、邪见人谤者,是菩萨波罗夷罪。

Not giving rise [to the] mind [of] faith, [and the] mind [of] filial piety, and instead, [to] still support those persons [with] evil views [to] slander, [this] is [a] Bodhisattva’s parājika transgression.

Note [49] Defence Of The Triple Gem: Bodhisattvas should be faithful to the Triple Gem. If not yet so adequately, they should learn and practise the Dharma all the more sincerely and diligently. With deeper faith and understanding of the Dharma, there will naturally be defence of the Triple Gem against those who slander it. If even Bodhisattvas do not speak up for the Triple Gem, its stable instuition in our world will be lost, perhaps including to themselves. More considerations on this and other related Precepts can be seen at: https://thedailyenlightenment.com/2017/06/are-all-in-monastic-robes-beyond-question.

(51) Do not personally slander the Triple Gem.
(52) Do not instruct others to slander the Triple Gem.
(53)
Do not be with slander’s causes, conditions, methods and actions.
(54) Give rise to filial piety and faith in the Triple Gem.
(55) Do not support those slandering the Triple Gem with evil views.

善学诸仁者,是菩萨十波罗提木叉,应当学。于中不应一一犯如微尘许,何况具足犯十戒?

Well learned [and] all benevolent ones, [these] are Bodhisattvas’ Ten Prātimokṣa [Precepts, that you] should learn. Of [them] within, [you] should not one [by] one violate, [even if] as little [as one] fine [mote of] dust, much less [to] completely violate [all] Ten Precepts.

若有犯者,不得现身发菩提心,亦失国王位、转轮王位、亦失比丘、比丘尼位、亦失十发趣、十长养、十金刚、十地。

If [there] are those violating [them, they will] not attain, [in this] present [life’s] body, [the] giving rise [of the] Bodhi Mind, also losing Kings’ positions, Wheel-Turning Kings’ positions, also losing Bhikṣus’ [and] Bhikṣuṇīs’ positions, also losing [the] Ten Setting-Outs, Ten Nurturances, Ten Vajras, [and] Ten Grounds.

Note [50] Wheel-Turning Kings: An Iron, Copper, Silver and Gold (铁、铜、银、金) Wheel-Turning King respectively rules one continent (in the South), two continents (in the East and South), three continents (in the East, West and South) and four continents (in the East, South, West and North of a world system, with teachings of the Dharma. (Buddhas are instead universal Dharma Kings [法王], who turn the Dharma wheel for all who can receive it.)

Note [51] Ten Setting-Outs, Ten Nurturances, Ten Vajras And Ten Grounds:

As taught in the ‘Brahma Net Sūtra‘s Upper Scroll’s Tenth Chapter [On] Rocana Buddha Speaking [On] Bodhisattvas’ Mind Ground’ (《梵网经》卢舍那佛说菩萨心地品第十卷上),

[Minds Of Ten Setting-Outs (十发趣心)]:

(1) Mind Of Renunciation (一舍心),
(2) Mind Of Precepts (二戒心),
(3) Mind Of Forbearance (三忍心),
(4) Mind Of Diligence (四进心),
(5) Mind Of Concentration (五定心),
(6) Mind Of Wisdom (六慧心),
(7) Mind Of Aspiration (七愿心),
(8) Mind Of Protection (八护心),
(9) Mind Of Joy (九喜心),
(10) Mind Of Peak (十顶心).

[Minds Of Ten Nurturances (十长养心)]:

(1) Mind Of Loving-Kindness (一慈心),
(2) Mind Of Compassion (二悲心),
(3) Mind Of Joy (三喜心),
(4) Mind Of Renunciation (四舍心),
(5) Mind Of Generosity (五施心),
(6) Mind Of Good Speech (六好语心),
(7) Mind Of Beneficence (七益心),
(8) Mind Of Empathy (八同心),
(9) Mind Of Concentration (九定心),
(10) Mind Of Wisdom (十慧心).

[Minds Of Ten Vajras (十金刚心)]:

(1) Mind Of Faith (一信心),
(2) Mind Of Mindfulness (二念心),
(3) Mind Of Dedication (三回向心),
(4) Mind Of Penetration (四达心),
(5) Mind Of Straightforwardness (五直心),
(6) Mind Of Non-Retrogression (六不退心),
(7) Mind Of Great Vehicle (七大乘心),
(8) Mind Of Formlessness (八无相心),
(9) Mind Of Wisdom (九慧心),
(10) Mind Of Indestructibility (十不坏心).

[Ten Grounds (十地)]:

(1) Ground Of Essential Nature’s Equality (一体性平等地),
(2) Ground Of Essential Nature’s Good Wisdom (二体性善慧地),
(3) Ground Of Essential Nature’s Bright Light (三体性光明地),
(4) Ground Of Essential Nature’s Thus Flaming (四体性尔焰地),
(5) Ground Of Essential Nature’s Wisdom Illumination (五体性慧照地),
(6) Ground Of Essential Nature’s Flower Light (六体性华光地),
(7) Ground Of Essential Nature’s Completion (七体性满足地),
(8) Ground Of Essential Nature’s Buddha’s Roar (八体性佛吼地),
(9) Ground Of Essential Nature’s Flower Adornment (九体性华严地),
(10) Ground Of Essential Nature Entering Buddha’s Realm (十体性入佛界地).

佛性常住妙果,一切皆失。堕三恶道中,二劫三劫,不闻父母三宝名字,以是不应一一犯。汝等一切菩萨,今学、当学、已学,如是十戒,应当学,敬心奉持。八万威仪品当广明。」

Buddha-nature’s constantly abiding wonderful fruit, [will] all [be] lost. Falling within [the] three evil paths, [for] two kalpas, three kalpas, not hearing [the] names [of their] fathers, mothers [and the] Triple Gem. With this, [you] should not one [by] one violate [them]. You [and] others, all Bodhisattvas, [those] now learning, will be learning [and] already learnt, thus are [the] Ten Precepts, [that] should be learnt, [and with the] reverent mind received [and] upheld. [The] Chapter [On] Eighty Thousand [Forms Of] Majestic Conduct will extensively explain.’

Note [52] Three Evil Paths: Three lower realms of hell-beings (地狱众生), hungry ghosts (饿鬼) and animals (畜生). More considerations on this can be seen at: https://thedailyenlightenment.com/2020/09/to-what-extent-should-the-dharma-be-protected.

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