Sutras

The Sūtra On Praises Of The Pure Land With Buddhas’ Protection And Reception《称赞净土佛摄受经》

[Square brackets show connective words used.]

《称赞净土佛摄受经》

[The] Sūtra [On] Praises [Of The] Pure Land [With] Buddhas’ Protection [And] Reception

大唐三藏法师玄奘奉 诏译

[By the] Great Táng [Dynasty’s] Tripiṭaka Dharma Master Xuánzàng [with] decree translated

[Note 1: This is an alternative ‘version’ of ‘The Sūtra In Which The Buddha Speaks Of Amitābha Buddha’《佛说阿弥陀经》(Amitābha Sūtra), as translated from Sanskrit to Chinese in 650 C.E., that is said to had been translated more directly (直译), which would be a literal translation. The currently more popular version was translated by Tripiṭaka Dharma Master Kumārajīva (三藏法师鸠摩罗什) in 402 C.E., which was 248 years earlier, that is said to had been translated more by meaning (意译), which would be a form of summarised translation.

However, there is the possibility that they were translated from different Sanskrit versions, as analysed below, due to some significant differences. (For notes on other technical terms not explained here, do refer to this book: https://thedailyenlightenment.com/2015/07/new-translation-of-amitabha-sutra.)

From ‘The Land of Bliss: The Paradise of the Buddha of Measureless Light’ (1996) by Professor Emeritus of Asian Languages and Cultures at the University of Michigan Luis Oscar Gómez (1943-2017) (p.128-129), is an analysis that differs from the often ‘said’ two methods of translation above — 

‘[T]he Chinese translations [of the Shorter and Longer Sukhāvatīvyūha Sūtras: Amitābha Sūtra and Immeasurable Life Sūtra respectively] selected for the present study do not differ radically from their Sanskrit counterparts. Most likely, the Chinese translators did not have access to exactly the same texts that today survive in Sanskrit, but their Indian sources must have been variants of the texts now represented by the surviving Sanskrit versions. [Note: … Indian (Sanskrit) versions used by the Chinese translators do not survive…] … 

Kumārajīva’s [344-413 C.E.] translation is the more elegant of the two [Shorter Sukhāvatīvyūha Sūtras]. It is also closer to the extant [i.e. still existing] Sanskrit text. The other surviving translation of this text, by the translator-pilgrim Xuánzàng (602-664 C.E.), is more detailed and slightly longer than Kumārajīva’s. At times it appears to be a commentary glossing technical terms that might seem obscure to the Chinese reader. Yet, it is substantially the same as the surviving Sanskrit text and Kumārajīva’s translation.’] 

如是我闻:一时,薄伽梵在室罗筏住誓多林给孤独园,与大苾刍众千二百五十人俱,一切皆是尊宿声闻众望所识大阿罗汉,其名曰:尊者舍利子、摩诃目犍连、摩诃迦叶、阿泥律陀,如是等诸大声闻而为上首。

Thus is [as] I [have] heard. [At] one time, [the] Bhagavān [was] at Śrāvastī, abiding [in] Jeta Grove [And] Giver[-To-The-]Lonely Garden, with [the] great Bhikṣus’ assembly [of one] thousand [and] two hundred fifty persons together, all [of whom] are senior monastic Voice-Hearers, [by] many expected [are] those known Great Arhats. Their names [are, the] honoured Śāriputra, Mahāmaudgalyāyana, Mahākāśyapa, Aniruddha, such [and] other many Great Voice-Hearers then as presiding elders.

[Note 2: ‘Bhagavān’ (薄伽梵), although often translated simply as ‘World-Honoured One’ (世尊), has six meanings — (i) One With Ease (自在), (ii) Prosperous One (炽盛), (iii) Dignity Adorned One (端严), (iv) Renowned One (名称), (v) Auspicious One (吉祥) and (vi) Honourable One (尊贵). Due to these multiple meanings, it was left untranslated here.

Note 3: Present are Great Arhats (大阿罗汉) who continue to learn and practise the Bodhisattva path to Buddhahood, via reaching of Pure Land, and to guide all other beings to the same goal.

Note 4: In the other ‘version’ of the Amitābha Sūtra, these 12 Arhats are listed by name too — (i) Mahākātyāyana (摩诃迦旃延), (ii) Mahākauṣṭhila ( 摩诃俱絺罗), (iii) Revata (离婆多), (iv) Śuddhipanthaka (周利槃陀伽), (v) Nanda (难陀), (vi) Ānanda (阿难陀), (vii) Rāhula (罗睺罗), (viii) Gavāṃpati (憍梵波提), (ix) Piṇḍola-Bhāradvāja (宾头卢颇罗堕), (x) Kālodayin (迦留陀夷), (xi) Mahākapphiṇa (摩诃劫宾那) and (xii) Vakkula (薄拘罗). If it is a ‘summarised’ version, why would it carry so many more names, instead of less? This means it could be translated from another Sanskrit version.]

复与无量菩萨摩诃萨俱,一切皆住不退转位,无量功德众所庄严,其名曰:妙吉祥菩萨、无能胜菩萨、常精进菩萨、不休息菩萨,如是等诸大菩萨而为上首。

Furthermore, with immeasurable Bodhisattva-Mahāsattvas together, all abiding [in] non-retrogression’s position, [with] immeasurably many meritorious virtues those adorned. Their names [are] Wonderful Auspiciousness Bodhisattva, Unable[-To-Be-]Defeated Bodhisattva, Constant Diligence Bodhisattva, Never Resting Bodhisattva, such [and] other many great Bodhisattvas then as presiding elders.

[Note 5: ‘Wonderful Auspiciousness’ (妙吉祥) is an alternative name of Mañjuśrī Bodhisattva (文殊菩萨).

Note 6:
‘Unable-To-Be-Defeated’ (不能胜) and ‘Unconquerable’ (Ajita: 阿逸多) are alternative names of Maitreya Bodhisattva (弥勒菩萨). 

Note 7:
‘Constant Diligence’ (常精进) is an alternative name of Nityodyukta Bodhisattva.

Note 8:
 ‘Never Resting’ (不休息) is an alternative name of Anikṣiptadhura Bodhisattva, whose name is similar in meaning with Gandhahastin Bodhisattva (乾陀诃提菩萨) in the other ‘version’ of the Amitābha Sūtra.] 

复有帝释、大梵天王、堪忍界主、护世四王,如是上首百千俱胝那庾多数诸天子众,及余世间无量天、人、阿素洛等,为闻法故,俱来会坐。

Furthermore, with Śakra, Great Brahmā Heaven’s King, [the] Endurance Land’s Lord, [the] World-Protecting Four Kings, such presiding elders, [of a] hundred thousand koṭis [of] nayutas’ number [of] many heavenly [beings’] sons’ assemblies, and [the] rest [of the] world’s immeasurable heavenly [beings], humans, asuras [and] others, for hearing [the] Dharma thus, [who] together came [to the] assembly [to be] seated.

[Note 9: ‘Śakra’ (帝释) is Śakro-Devānām-Indra (释提桓因), the King of the Trāyastriṃśa (忉利天) gods in the second nearest Desire Realm (欲界) heaven.

Note 10:
‘Great Brahmā Heaven’s King’ (Mahābrahmā-Deva-Rāja: 大梵天王) is the greatest Brahmā Heaven King (梵天王) of the Endurance Land (堪忍界: Sahā World: 娑婆世界), also known as Brahmā Sahāmpati (梵摩三缽天), who resides in the highest or 18th Form Realm (色界) heaven (Akaniṣṭha: 阿迦尼吒: Highest; Not Below; Above All). This heaven is also known as the Heaven Of Ultimate Form (色究竟天). He should not be confused with Mahā Brahmā (大梵天) who resides in Mahā Brahmā Heaven, the third lowest form heaven, (or as Baka [Crane] Brahmā), who mistakenly thought he created the world. Śakra and Great Brahmā Heaven’s King are the most virtuous god kings of the Desire and Form Realms respectively.

Note 11:
The ‘World-Protecting Four Kings’ are the Four Great Heavenly Kings (四大天王) of the nearest Desire Heaven (Cāturmahārājika: 四大王: Four Great Kings).

Note 12:
In the other ‘version’ of the Amitābha Sūtra, only Śakra is listed as Śakro-Devānām-Indra, as a chief god present.]

尔时,世尊告舍利子:「汝今知不?于是西方,去此世界过百千俱胝那庾多佛土,有佛世界名曰极乐。其中世尊名无量寿及无量光,如来、应、正等觉十号圆满,今现在彼安隐住持,为诸有情宣说甚深微妙之法,令得殊胜利益安乐。

At that time, [the] World-Honoured [One] told Śāriputra, ‘[Do] you now not know? From here, [in the] western direction, away [from] this world, passing [a] hundred thousand koṭis [of] nayutas [of] Buddha lands, is [a] Buddha’s land called “Ultimate Bliss”. That [land] within’s World-Honoured [One is] named “Immeasurable Life” and “Immeasurable Light”, Thus Come [One, One] Worthy [Of Offerings], Equally [And] Rightly Awakened [One, with the] Ten Epithets complete, now presently in that [land] tranquilly abiding [and] upholding [it], for all sentient [beings] preaching [that] extremely profound, refined [and] wonderful of [the] Dharma, [to] enable attaining [of] excellent benefits [of] peace [and] bliss.

[Note 13: 1 koṭi (俱胝; 亿) is about 10 million. 1 nayuta (那庾多; 那由他) is about 100 billion. Together, ‘a hundred thousand koṭis of nayutas’ is 1 trillion times 100 billion, or 10 to the 23rd power of worlds away. This contrasts with ‘a hundred thousand koṭis’ (十万亿), which is 1 trillion, in the other ‘version’ of the Amitābha Sūtra, (by 100 billion times more), which might had abbreviated the distance. However, as the teaching shows below, the physical distance, which represents great spiritual estrangement, is not an issue with swift connection to the Buddha and swift reception by him.

Note 14:
Having the Ten Epithets (十号) represents complete awakening and functioning as a Buddha — (i) Thus Come One (Tathāgata: 如来), (ii) One Worthy Of Offerings (Arhat: 应供), (iii) Rightly All-Knowing One (正遍知: Samyak-saṃbuddha), (iv) Knowledge And Practice Adequate One (明行足: Vidyā-caraṇa-saṃpanna), (v) Well-Gone One (善逝: Sugata), (vi) World-Knowing One (世间解: Lokavida), (vii) Unsurpassable One (无上士: Anuttara), (viii) Tamer Of Men (调御丈夫: Puruṣa-damya-sārathi), (ix) Heavenly And Human Beings’ Teacher (天人师: Śāsta deva-manuṣyāṇaṃ) and (x) Awakened One (Buddha: 佛); Blessed One (Bhagavān: 薄伽梵); World-Honoured One (Lokanātha: 世尊). See slightly different wording of the Ten Epithets in passage above Note 72

Note 15: 
In the other ‘version’ of the Amitābha Sūtra, the Ten Epithets are not listed.

Note 16:
The Land Of Ultimate Bliss is also called the Land Of Peace And Bliss (安乐国), where there is ‘attaining of excellent benefits of peace and bliss (得殊胜利益安乐).]   

「又,舍利子!何因何缘,彼佛世界名为极乐?舍利子!由彼界中诸有情类,无有一切身心忧苦,唯有无量清净喜乐,是故名为极乐世界。

Moreover, Śāriputra, [of] what cause [and] what condition, [is] that Buddha’s land named as “Ultimate Bliss”? Śāriputra, due [to] that land within’s all sentient beings, [being] without all physical [and] mental worries [and] suffering, only having immeasurable pure happiness [and] bliss, therefore [is it] named as [the] “Land [Of] Ultimate Bliss”.

[Note 17: ‘Happiness’ is physical joy.

Note 18: ‘Bliss’ is mental joy.

Note 19:
 In the other ‘version’ of the Amitābha Sūtra, suffering and bliss is stated in general, without division into the physical and mental — ‘without all kinds of suffering, and only receive all kinds of bliss (无有众苦,但受诸乐). With more detail here, ‘immeasurable pure happiness and bliss’ (无量清净喜乐) is stated.]

「又,舍利子!极乐世界净佛土中,处处皆有七重行列妙宝栏楯、七重行列宝多罗树,及有七重妙宝罗网,周匝围绕,四宝庄严—金宝、銀宝、吠琉璃宝、颇胝迦宝,妙饰间绮。舍利子!彼佛土中有如是等众妙绮饰,功德庄严甚可爱乐,是故名为极乐世界。

Moreover, Śāriputra, within [the] Land [Of] Ultimate Bliss’ pure Buddha land, everywhere are seven layers [of] lined rows [of] wonderful treasure balustrades, seven layers [of] lined rows [of] treasure tāla trees, and seven layers [of] wonderful treasure nets, surrounded [with] four treasures’ adornments, [of] gold treasure, silver treasure, vaiḍūrya treasure [and] sphaṭika treasure, wonderfully adorning within elegantly. Śāriputra, [as] that Buddha land within has such [and] other many wonderful [and] elegant adornments, [by] meritorious virtues adorned, extremely lovely [and] blissful, therefore [is it] named as [the] “Land [Of] Ultimate Bliss”.

[Note 20: ‘Tāla’ (多罗) is palmyra or fan-palm.

Note 21: In the other ‘version’ of the Amitābha Sūtra, the ‘species’ of trees is not stated.

Note 22: ‘Vaiḍūrya’ (吠琉璃) is lapis lazuli (琉璃).

Note 23: ‘Sphaṭika’ (颇胝迦) is crystal (玻璃).

Note 24: In the other ‘version’ of the Amitābha Sūtra, the ‘many wonderful and elegant adornments’ (众妙绮饰) which are ‘extremely lovely and blissful’ (甚可爱乐) is not stated or repeated for emphasis.]

「又,舍利子!极乐世界净佛土中,处处皆有七妙宝池,八功德水弥满其中。何等名为八功德水?一者澄净,二者清冷,三者甘美,四者轻软,五者润泽,六者安和,七者饮时除饥渴等无量过患,八者饮已定能长养诸根四大;增益种种殊胜善根,多福众生常乐受用。是诸宝池底布金沙,四面周匝有四阶道,四宝庄严甚可爱乐。诸池周匝有妙宝树,间饰行列香气芬馥,七宝庄严甚可爱乐。言七宝者,一金、二銀、三吠琉璃、四颇胝迦、五赤真珠、六阿湿摩揭拉婆宝、七牟娑落揭拉婆宝。是诸池中常有种种杂色莲华,量如车轮,青形青显青光青影,黃形黃显黃光黃影,赤形赤显赤光赤影,白形白显白光白影,四形四显四光四影。舍利子!彼佛土中有如是等众妙绮饰,功德庄严甚可爱乐,是故名为极乐世界。

Moreover, Śāriputra, within [the] Land [Of] Ultimate Bliss’ pure Buddha land, everywhere are seven wonderful treasures’ ponds, [with] eight meritorious virtues’ waters fully [filling] them within. How [are they] named as “eight meritorious virtues’ waters”? [They are], first, tranquil [and] clear, second, pure [and] cool, third, sweet [and] pleasant, fourth, light [and] soft, fifth, moisturising, sixth, peaceful [and] harmonious, seventh, when drunk eradicates hunger, thirst, [and] other immeasurable faults [and] suffering, eighth, [when] drunk already, definitely able [to] grow [and] nurture all roots’ four great [elements], increase all kinds [of] excellent good roots, [and] many blessings [for] sentient beings [who] often joyfully receive [and] use [them]. All these treasure ponds’ beds [are] spread [with] golden sand, [with their] four sides surrounding having four stairways, [with] four treasures adorned, extremely lovely [and] blissful. All ponds’ surroundings have wonderful treasure trees, [in] between adorning [the] lined rows [are] fragrant aromas, [with] seven treasures adorned, extremely lovely [and] blissful. Speaking [of] those seven treasures, [they are], first, gold, second, silver, third, vaiḍūrya, fourth, sphaṭika, fifth, red pearls, sixth, aśma-garbha treasure, [and] seventh, musāragalavḥ treasure. All these ponds within constantly have all kinds [of] varicoloured lotus flowers, measuring like chariot wheels, [of] blue forms blue manifested [with] blue light [and] blue reflections, yellow forms yellow manifested [with] yellow light [and] yellow reflections, red forms red manifested [with] red light [and] red reflections, white forms white manifested [with] white light [and] white reflections, four forms [of] four manifestations [of] four lights [and] four reflections. Śāriputra, [as] that Buddha land within has such [and] other many wonderful [and] elegant adornments, [by] meritorious virtues adorned, extremely lovely [and] blissful, therefore [is it] named as [the] “Land [Of] Ultimate Bliss”.

[Note 25: In the other ‘version’ of the Amitābha Sūtra, the eight meritorious virtues’ waters’ (八功德水) qualities and functions are not stated.

Note 26: In the other ‘version’ of the Amitābha Sūtra, this is not stated — ‘All ponds’ surroundings have wonderful treasure trees, in between adorning the lined rows are fragrant aromas, with seven treasures adorned, extremely lovely and blissful.’ (诸池周匝有妙宝树,间饰行列香气芬馥,七宝庄严甚可爱乐。)

Note 27:
 In the other ‘version’ of the Amitābha Sūtra, this is also stated — ‘Above are towering pavilions, also with gold, silver, lapis lazuli, crystal, tridacna, red pearls and carnelian thus adorning them.’ (上有楼阁,亦以金、银、琉璃、玻璃、砗磲、赤珠、玛瑙而严饰之。).

Note 28:
‘Aśma-garbha’ (阿湿摩揭拉婆宝) is carnelian (玛瑙).

Note 29:
‘Musāragalavḥ’ (牟娑落揭拉婆) is tricdacna (砗磲).

Note 30:
Like the lotus flowers, all objects in the Pure Land are self-luminous, while illuminating others.]

「又,舍利子!极乐世界净佛土中,自然常有无量无边众妙伎乐,音曲和雅甚可爱乐。诸有情类闻斯妙音,诸恶烦恼悉皆消灭,无量善法渐次增长,速证无上正等菩提。舍利子!彼佛土中有如是等众妙绮饰,功德庄严甚可爱乐,是故名为极乐世界。

Moreover, Śāriputra, within [the] Land [Of] Ultimate Bliss’ pure Buddha land, naturally [and] constantly has immeasurably [and] boundlessly many wonderful [kinds of] music, [with their] sounds [and] tunes harmonious [and] elegant, extremely lovely [and] blissful. All sentient beings [who] hear these wonderful sounds, all [have their] evil afflictions all eradicated, [and] immeasurable good Dharmas gradually, one by one, increase [and] grow, [to] quickly realise Unsurpassable Equal [And] Right Bodhi. Śāriputra, [as] that Buddha land within has such [and] other many wonderful [and] elegant adornments, [by] meritorious virtues adorned, extremely lovely [and] blissful, therefore [is it] named as [the] “Land [Of] Ultimate Bliss”.

[Note 31: In the other ‘version’ of the Amitābha Sūtra, the above functions of the music are not stated, although implied — ‘naturally all give rise to minds with mindfulness of the Buddha, mindfulness of the Dharma, and mindfulness of the Saṃgha’ (自然皆生念佛、念法、念僧之心).]

「又,舍利子!极乐世界净佛土中,周遍大地真金合成,其触柔软,香洁光明,无量无边妙宝间饰。舍利子!彼佛土中有如是等众妙绮饰,功德庄严甚可爱乐,是故名为极乐世界。

Moreover, Śāriputra, within [the] Land [Of] Ultimate Bliss’ pure Buddha land, completely everywhere [is the] great ground [of] real gold composed, [with] its touch gentle [and] soft, fragrant [and] pure [with] bright light, [with] immeasurable [and] boundless wonderful treasures [in] between adorning. Śāriputra, [as] that Buddha land within has such [and] other many wonderful [and] elegant adornments, [by] meritorious virtues adorned, extremely lovely [and] blissful, therefore [is it] named as [the] “Land [Of] Ultimate Bliss”.

[Note 32: In the other ‘version’ of the Amitābha Sūtra, the gentle softness and fragrant brightness of the gold ground are not stated. There is a common misconception that gold is metallically hard and cold to walk upon, although this is not so for the pure and blissful gold in Pure Land.] 

「又,舍利子!极乐世界净佛土中,昼夜六时常雨种种上妙天华,光泽香洁,细软杂色,虽令见者身心适悦而不贪着,增长有情无量无数不可思议殊胜功德。彼有情类,昼夜六时常持供养无量寿佛;每晨朝时,持此天华,于一食頃,飞至他方无量世界,供养百千俱胝诸佛,于诸佛所各以百千俱胝树花持散供养,还至本处遊天住等。舍利子!彼佛土中有如是等众妙绮饰,功德庄严甚可爱乐,是故名为极乐世界。

Moreover, Śāriputra, within [the] Land [Of] Ultimate Bliss’ pure Buddha land, day [and] night, [during the] six periods, constantly rains all kinds [of] supremely wonderful heavenly flowers, [with] light brilliant, fragrant [and] pure, fine [and] soft [with] various colours, although enabling those [who] see [them to have] body [and] mind well pleased, yet not [with] greedy attachment, increasing [and] growing sentient [beings’] immeasurable, innumerable [and] inconceivable excellent meritorious virtues. Those sentient beings, day [and] night, [during the] six periods, constantly hold offerings [for] Immeasurable Life Buddha. Every early morning, holding these heavenly flowers, in one meal’s time, [they] fly [to] reach other directions’ immeasurable lands, [to] make offerings [to a] hundred thousand koṭis [of] many Buddhas, in many Buddhas’ places each with [a] hundred thousand koṭis [of] tree flowers held scattering [to] make offerings, returning [to] reach [their] original place, [to] travel [in the] sky, abide [and] so on. Śāriputra, [as] that Buddha land within has such [and] other many wonderful [and] elegant adornments, [by] meritorious virtues adorned, extremely lovely [and] blissful, therefore [is it] named as [the] “Land [Of] Ultimate Bliss”.

[Note 33: In the other ‘version’ of the Amitābha Sūtra, ‘Māndarāva flowers’ (曼陀罗华) is stated, with no mention of their qualities and functions above within Pure Land, although it states its beings ‘each with their clothes’ lapels, fill many wonderful flowers’ (各以衣裓,盛众妙华).

Note 34: In the other ‘version’ of the Amitābha Sūtra, the speed of making offerings and what done after is stated this way — ‘Promptly by mealtime, they return to the original land, to eat and do walking meditation.’ (即以食时,还到本国,饭食经行。) 

Note 35: The nature of the Pure Land’s bliss is physically and spiritually pleasing, such that it fully disables the Three Poisons (三毒) of attachment, aversion and delusion (贪嗔痴), while enabling their antidotes (of generosity, compassion and delusion) to fully grow. 

Note 36: Offerings can even be made to the Buddha existing in this world later.]

「又,舍利子!极乐世界净佛土中,常有种种奇妙可爱杂色众鸟,所谓:鹅雁、鹙鹭、鸿鹤、孔雀、鹦鹉、羯罗频迦、命命鸟等。如是众鸟,昼夜六时恒共集会,出和雅声,隨其类音宣扬妙法,所谓:甚深念住、正断、神足、根、力、觉、道支等无量妙法。彼土众生闻是声已,各得念佛、念法、念僧无量功德熏修其身。汝舍利子,于意云何?彼土众鸟岂是傍生恶趣摄耶?勿作是见。所以者何?彼佛净土无三恶道,尚不闻有三恶趣名,何況有实罪业所招傍生!众鸟当知皆是无量寿佛变化所作,令其宣暢无量法音,作诸有情利益安乐。舍利子!彼佛土中有如是等众妙绮饰,功德庄严甚可爱乐,是故名为极乐世界。

Moreover, Śāriputra, within the] Land [Of] Ultimate Bliss’ pure Buddha land, constantly has all kinds [of] many rare [and] wonderful, lovely [and] varicoloured birds, so-called swans, geese, orioles, herons, cranes, peacocks, parrots, kalaviṅkas, life-life birds [and] others. Such many birds, [in] day [and] night, [during the] six periods, constantly together assemble, [to] produce harmonious [and] elegant sounds, according [to] their kinds [of] sounds propagating [the] wonderful Dharma, [the] so-called extremely profound [Four] Mindfulness Foundations, [Four] Right Severences, [Four] Supernormal [Power] Bases, [Five] Roots, [Five] Powers, [Seven] Awakening [Factors, Eightfold Noble] Path factors [and] other immeasurable wonderful Dharmas. That land’s sentient beings, [having] heard these sounds already, each attain mindfulness [of the] Buddha, mindfulness [of the] Dharma, [and] mindfulness of [the] Saṃgha, [with their] immeasurable meritorious virtues cultivated perfuming their bodies. You, Śāriputra, what [do you] think of [this? Of] that land’s many birds, how can [they] be [from] animals’ evil realm gathered? [Do] not have this view. Why [is] that [so]? That Buddha’s Pure Land [is] without [the] three evil paths, even not having hearing [of the] three evil realms’ names, much less having those truly transgressive karma incurred animals. [These] many birds should [be] known, [to] all be Immeasurable Life Buddha, [with] manifestations [of] them made, [to] enable them [to] smoothly proclaim immeasurable Dharma sounds, for all sentient beings’ benefits [of] peace [and] bliss. Śāriputra, [as] that Buddha land within has such [and] other many wonderful [and] elegant adornments, [by] meritorious virtues adorned, extremely lovely [and] blissful, therefore [is it] named as [the] “Land [Of] Ultimate Bliss”.

[Note 37: In the other ‘version’ of the Amitābha Sūtra, ‘swans, geese, orioles, herons’ (鹅雁、鹙鹭) are not stated. 

Note 38: A ‘life-life bird’ (jīvajīvaka) is a ‘life-sharing bird’ (共命之鸟), with two heads and one body. 

Note 39: In the other ‘version’ of the Amitābha Sūtra, ‘[Four] Mindfulness Foundations, [Four] Right Severences, [Four] Supernormal [Power] Bases’ (念住、正断、神足) are not stated, although implied.]

「又,舍利子!极乐世界净佛土中,常有妙风吹诸宝树及宝罗网出微妙音。譬如百千俱胝天乐同时俱作,出微妙声甚可爱玩;如是彼土常有妙风吹众宝树及宝罗网,击出种种微妙音声说种种法。彼土众生闻是声已,起佛、法、僧念作意等无量功德。舍利子!彼佛土中有如是等众妙绮饰,功德庄严甚可爱乐,是故名为极乐世界。

Moreover, Śāriputra, within [the] Land [Of] Ultimate Bliss’ pure Buddha land, constantly has wonderful breezes blowing all [the] treasure trees and treasure nets, [to] produce refined [and] wonderful sounds, like [a] hundred thousand koṭis [of] heavenly music [at the] same time together playing, producing refined [and] wonderful sounds, [with] extremely lovely play. Thus, that land constantly has wonderful breezes blowing many treasure treasure trees and treasure nets, striking [to] produce all kinds [of] refined [and] wonderful sounds [that] speak all kinds [of] Dharma. That land’s sentient beings, [having] heard these sounds already, give rise [to] Buddha, Dharma [and] Saṃgha mindfulness [in] thought equal [to their] immeasurable meritorious virtues. Śāriputra, [as] that Buddha land within has such [and] other many wonderful [and] elegant adornments, [by] meritorious virtues adorned, extremely lovely [and] blissful, therefore [is it] named as [the] “Land [Of] Ultimate Bliss”.

[Note 40: In the other ‘version’ of the Amitābha Sūtra, this effect of mindfulness of the Triple Gem is not stated – ‘having thoughts equal to their immeasurable meritorious virtues’ (作意等无量功德).]   

「又,舍利子!极乐世界净佛土中,有如是等无量无边不可思议甚希有事。假使经于百千俱胝那庾多劫,以其无量百千俱胝那庾多舌,一一舌上出无量声赞其功德亦不能尽,是故名为极乐世界。

Moreover, Śāriputra, within [the] Land [Of] Ultimate Bliss’ pure Buddha land, are such [and] other immeasurable, boundless [and] inconceivable extremely rare matters. If passing of [a] hundred thousand koṭis [of] nayutas [of] kalpas, with their immeasurable hundred thousand koṭis [of] nayutas [of] tongues, [with] each [and every] one tongue producing immeasurable sounds [to] praise their meritorious virtues, [as this] also [is] not able [to] exhaust [them], therefore [is it] named as [the] “Land [Of] Ultimate Bliss”.

[Note 41: In the other ‘version’ of the Amitābha Sūtra, the analogy on the immeasurability of the meritorious virtues of the Pure Land is not stated.]

「又,舍利子!极乐世界净佛土中,佛有何缘名无量寿?舍利子!由彼如来及诸有情,寿命无量无数大劫;由是缘故,彼土如来名无量寿。舍利子!无量寿佛证得阿耨多罗三藐三菩提已来经十大劫。舍利子!何缘彼佛名无量光?舍利子!由彼如来恒放无量无边妙光,遍照一切十方佛土,施作佛事无有障碍;由是缘故,彼土如来名无量光。舍利子!彼佛净土中成就如是功德庄严甚可爱乐,是故名为极乐世界。

Moreover, Śāriputra, within [the] Land [Of] Ultimate Bliss’ pure Buddha land, [the] Buddha has what condition [to be] named “Immeasurable Life”?  Śāriputra, due [to] that Thus Come [One] and all [his] sentient [beings, having] lifespans [of] immeasurable [and] innumerable great kalpas, due [to] this condition thus, that land’s Thus Come [One is] named “Immeasurable Life”. Śāriputra, [of] Immeasurable Life Buddha’s realisation [and] attainment [of] Anuttarā Samyak Saṃbodhi, [it has] since passed ten great kalpas. Śāriputra, [by] what condition [is] that Buddha named “Immeasurable Light”? Śāriputra, due [to] that Buddha’s constant producing [of] immeasurable [and] boundless wonderful light, [that] everywhere illuminates all [the] ten directions’ Buddha lands, giving [and] doing Buddha’s matters without having obstacles, due [to] this condition thus, that land’s Thus Come [One is] named “Immeasurable Light”. Śāriputra, [as] that Buddha’s Pure Land within [is] accomplished [with] such meritorious virtues’ adornments, extremely lovely [and] blissful, therefore [is it] named as [the] “Land [Of] Ultimate Bliss”.

[Note 42: In the other ‘version’ of the Amitābha Sūtra, the Buddha’s light ‘giving and doing Buddha’s matters’ (施作佛事) is not stated, although implied.]

「又,舍利子!极乐世界净佛土中,无量寿佛常有无量声闻弟子,一切皆是大阿罗汉,具足种种微妙功德,其量无边不可称数。舍利子!彼佛土中成就如是功德庄严甚可爱乐,是故名为极乐世界。

Moreover, Śāriputra, within [the] Land [Of] Ultimate Bliss’ pure Buddha land, Immeasurable Life Buddha constantly has immeasurable Voice-Hearer disciples, all [of whom] are Great Arhats, complete [with] all kinds [of] refined [and] wonderful meritorious virtues, their quantity [is] boundless [and] cannot [be] stated [in] number. Śāriputra, [as] that Buddha land within [is] accomplished [with] such meritorious virtues’ adornments, extremely lovely [and] blissful, therefore [is it] named as [the] “Land [Of] Ultimate Bliss”.

「又,舍利子!极乐世界净佛土中,无量寿佛常有无量菩萨弟子,一切皆是一生所系,具足种种微妙功德,其无量无边不可称数,假使经于无数量劫赞其功德终不能尽。舍利子!彼佛土中成就如是功德庄严甚可爱乐,是故名为极乐世界。

Moreover, Śāriputra, within [the] Land [Of] Ultimate Bliss’ pure Buddha land, Immeasurable Life Buddha constantly has immeasurable Bodhisattva disciples, all [of whom] are [with] One Lifetime Those Connected, complete [with] all kinds [of] refined [and] wonderful meritorious virtues, they [are] immeasurable [and] boundless, [and] cannot [be] stated [in] number. If passing of [an] innumerable number [of] kalpas praising their meritorious virtues, [they will still] not [be] able [to be] exhausted. Śāriputra, [as] that Buddha land within [is] accomplished [with] such meritorious virtues’ adornments, extremely lovely [and] blissful, therefore [is it] named as [the] “Land [Of] Ultimate Bliss”.

[Note 43: ‘One Lifetime Those Connected’ (一生所系) are those who are ready to manifest Buddhahood in their immediate lives. In the other ‘version’ of the Amitābha Sūtra, the term used is ‘Position Of One Life To Replacement’ (一生补处), stated as many among all, who are with non-retrogression.]

「又,舍利子!若诸有情生彼土者皆不退转,必不复堕诸险恶趣、边地下贱蔑戾车中,常遊诸佛清净国土,殊胜行愿念念增进,決定当证阿耨多罗三藐三菩提。舍利子!彼佛土中成就如是功德庄严甚可爱乐,是故名为极乐世界。

Moreover, Śāriputra, if all sentient [beings are] born [in] that land, all [will be] non-retrogressible, [and] definitely not again fall [into] all dangerous evil realms, [as] border lands’ lowly mlecchás within, often travelling [to] many Buddhas’ Pure Lands, [with] excellent practices [and] vows, [from] thought [to] thought advancing, [they] will definitely realise Anuttarā Samyak Saṃbodhi. Śāriputra, [as] that Buddha land within [is] accomplished [with] such meritorious virtues’ adornments, extremely lovely [and] blissful, therefore [is it] named as [the] “Land [Of] Ultimate Bliss”.

[Note 44: In the other ‘version’ of the Amitābha Sūtra, the term used for ‘non-retrogressible’ (不退转) is ‘Avaivartika’ (阿鞞跋致), with no mention of not falling into evil realms with lowly rebirths, and travel to many Pure Lands to keep advancing spiritually till attainment of Buddhahood, although implied by definition.

Note 45: ‘Border lands’ lowly mlecchás’ (边地下贱蔑戾车) are those born far away from where the Dharma is central, as ‘debased barbarians’ not keen on learning and practising the Dharma. In the other ‘version’ of the Amitābha Sūtra, this is not stated, although implied.] 

「又,舍利子!若诸有情闻彼西方无量寿佛清净佛土无量功德众所庄严,皆应发愿生彼佛土。所以者何?若生彼土,得与如是无量功德众所庄严诸大士等同一集会,受用如是无量功德众所庄严清净佛土,大乘法乐常无退转,无量行愿念念增进,速证无上正等菩提。故,舍利子!生彼佛土诸有情类成就无量无边功德,非少善根诸有情类当得往生无量寿佛极乐世界清净佛土。

Moreover, Śāriputra, if all sentient [beings] hear [of] that western Immeasurable Life Buddha’s pure Buddha land, [with] immeasurably many meritorious virtues those adorned, all should vow [to be] born [in] that Buddha land. Why [is] that [so]? If born [in] that land, [they will] attain [being] with such immeasurably many meritorious virtues those adorned, [with] all great beings, equally [as] one gathering [and] meeting, [to] receive [and] use such immeasurably many meritorious virtues that adorn [the] pure Buddha land, [with the] Great Vehicle’s Dharma joy constant [and] without retrogression, [with] immeasurable practices [and] vows, [from] thought [to] thought advancing, [to] quickly realise Unsurpassable Equal [And] Right Bodhi. Thus, Śāriputra, born [in] that Buddha land, all sentient beings [will] accomplish immeasurable [and] boundless meritorious virtues, [and it is] not [with] few good roots, [that] all sentient beings will attain rebirth [in] Immeasurable Life Buddha’s Land [Of] Ultimate Bliss’ pure Buddha land.

[Note 46: In the other ‘version’ of the Amitābha Sūtra, this is not stated — ‘receive and use such immeasurably many meritorious virtues that adorn the pure Buddha land, with the Great Vehicle’s Dharma joy constant and without retrogression, with immeasurable practices and vows, from thought to thought advancing, to quickly realise Unsurpassable Equal And Right Bodhi… will accomplish immeasurable and boundless meritorious virtues’ (受用如是无量功德众所庄严清净佛土,大乘法乐常无退转,无量行愿念念增进,速证无上正等菩提。… 成就无量无边功德), although implied, as the functioning of Avaivartikas.]

「又,舍利子!若有净信诸善男子或善女人,得闻如是无量寿佛无量无边不可思议功德名号、极乐世界功德庄严,闻已思惟,若一日夜,或二、或三、或四、或五、或六、或七,系念不乱。是善男子或善女人临命终时,无量寿佛与其无量声闻弟子、菩萨众俱前后围绕,来住其前,慈悲加祐,令心不乱;既舍命已,随佛众会,生无量寿极乐世界清净佛土。

Moreover, Śāriputra, if [there] are [those with] pure faith, all good men or good women, [who] attain hearing [of] such Immeasurable Life Buddha’s name’s immeasurable, boundless [and] inconceivable meritorious virtues, [and his] Land [Of] Ultimate Bliss’ meritorious virtues’ adornments, [having] heard [of them] already, contemplating [them], if [for] one day [and] night, or two, or three, or four, or five, or six, or seven, connectedly mindful without [being] scattered, [for] these good men or good women, when [they] approach life’s end, Immeasurable Life Buddha and his assembly [of] immeasurable Voice-Hearer disciples [and] Bodhisattvas together, [from the] front [and] behind [will] surround, coming [to] abide before them, [with] loving-kindness [and] compassion blessing [and] protecting, enabling [their] minds [to] not [be] scattered. Then, [having] renounced [their] lives already, following [the] Buddha’s assembly, [to be] born [with] immeasurable life [in the] Land [Of] Ultimate Bliss’ pure Buddha land.

[Note 47: In the other ‘version’ of the Amitābha Sūtra, ‘those with pure faith’ (有净信) was not stated as a quality of the good men and women, although implied.

Note 48: ‘[A]ttain hearing of such Immeasurable Life Buddha’s name’s immeasurable, boundless and inconceivable meritorious virtues’ (得闻如是无量寿佛无量无边不可思议功德名号) can be summed up as mindfulness of the Buddha’s name (念佛). 

Note 49: ‘[A]nd his Land Of Ultimate Bliss’ meritorious virtues’ adornments, having heard of them already, contemplating them’ (极乐世界功德庄严,闻已思惟) can be summed up as recollection of the Buddha (忆佛). 

Note 50: ‘Connectedly mindful without being scattered’ (系念不乱) is to be continually mindful without being interrupted by other thoughts. This is the equivalent of ‘wholeheartedly (i.e. sincerely) without being scattered’ (一心不乱) in the other ‘version’ of the Amitābha Sūtra. This state does not necessitate deep concentration, as often mistaken, as it is with arrival of the Buddha’s assembly to share their blessings later, that has the effect of ‘enabling their minds to not be scattered’ (令心不乱). If the prior state is already deep concentration, there would be no need for effecting this, which in the other ‘version’, is stated as ‘the mind not inverted’ (心不颠倒). 

Note 51: The Buddha and his assembly ‘together, from the front and behind will surround’ (俱前后围绕), to offer all-round blessings and protection, and to guide right mindfulness. The ‘surround’ effect is emphasized here. In the other ‘version’ of the Amitābha Sūtra, other than the Buddha, those present in the noble assembly who ‘appear before them’ (现在其前) are not stated.]  

「又,舍利子!我观如是利益安乐大事因缘,说诚谛语。若有净信诸善男子或善女人,得闻如是无量寿佛不可思议功德名号、极乐世界净佛土者,一切皆应信受发愿,如说修行,生彼佛土。

Moreover, Śāriputra, [as] I see such benefits [of] peace [and] bliss [for the] great matter’s cause [and] condition, [I] speak [these] sincerely truthful words. If [there] are [those with] pure faith, all good men or good women, [who] attain hearing [of] such Immeasurable Life Buddha’s name’s inconceivable meritorious virtues, [and the] Land [Of] Ultimate Bliss’ pure Buddha land, all should faithfully accept [and] vow, [as] thus said cultivate practice, [to be] born [in] that Buddha land.

[Note 52: In the other ‘version’ of the Amitābha Sūtra, the benefits in terms of ‘peace and bliss for the great matter’s cause and condition {of attaining Buddhahood} (利益安乐大事因缘)’ is not stated, although implied.

Note 53: In the other ‘version’ of the Amitābha Sūtra, to ‘as thus cultivate practice’ (如说修行) is not stated, although implied.]

「又,舍利子!如我今者,称扬赞叹无量寿佛无量无边不可思议佛土功德;如是东方亦有现在不动如来、山幢如来、大山如来、山光如来、妙幢如来,如是等佛如殑伽沙住在东方,自佛净土各各示现广长舌相遍覆三千大千世界周匝围绕,说诚谛言:『汝等有情皆应信受如是称赞不可思议佛土功德一切诸佛摄受法门。』

Moreover, Śāriputra, like I now, highly praise Immeasurable Life Buddha’s immeasurable, boundless [and] inconceivable Buddha land’s meritorious virtues, thus [in the] eastern direction, likewise presently has [1] Immovable Thus Come [One], [2] Mountain Banner Thus Come [One], [3] Great Mountain Thus Come [One], [4] Mountain Light Thus Come [One], [5] Wonderful Banner Thus Come [One], such [and] other Buddhas, like [the] Ganges’ sands abiding [in the] eastern direction, [in their] personal Buddhas’ Pure Lands, [with] each [and every] one manifesting [the] broad [and] long tongue’s form, [that] covers completely [his] three-thousandfold great-thousandfold world’s surroundings, speaking [these] sincerely truthful words, “You [and] other sentient [beings], should all faithfully accept such praises [of that] inconceivable Buddha land’s meritorious virtues, [and] all Buddhas’ protected [and] received Dharma Door.”

[Note 54: The following lists compare the Buddhas’ names here with those in the other ‘version’ of the Amitābha Sūtra. With all the ten directions’ Buddhas’ names here added, there are 42, instead of the six directions’ 38 in the other ‘version’, although its six directions are ‘supposed’ to also represent the ten directions. With significant differences in the number of directions and Buddhas, with their names, this could be translated from another Sanskrit version. (There are 16 more Buddhas here, and 12 Buddhas in the other ‘version’ ‘missing’ here.) It should be deemed disrespectful to omit listed Buddhas’ names, which makes them ‘unsummarisable’, while also not being numerically efficient to ‘summarise’, to merely reduce (42-38=) 4 Buddhas’ names.

Note 55:

[1] ‘Immovable Thus Come One’ (不动如来) is Akṣobhya Tathāgata (阿閦鞞佛: Akṣobhya Buddha).
[2] ‘Mountain Banner Thus Come One’ (山幢如来) is Meru-Dhvaja Tathāgata (须弥相佛: Sumeru Form Buddha).
[3] ‘Great Mountain Thus Come One’ (大山如来) is Mahāmeru Tathāgata (大须弥佛: Great Sumeru Buddha).
[4] ‘Mountain Light Thus Come One’ (山光如来) is Meru-Prabhāsa Tathāgata (须弥光佛: Sumeru Light Buddha).
[5] ‘Wonderful Banner Thus Come One’ (妙幢如来) is Mañju-Dhvaja Tathāgata (妙幢佛: Wonderful Banner Buddha).

‘Wonderful Banner Thus Come One’ is not stated in the other ‘version’ of the Amitābha Sūtra, while ‘Wonderful Voice Buddha’ (妙音佛: Mañjughoṣa Buddha) in it is not stated above. (1 more Buddha here, 1 Buddha in other ‘version’ ‘missing’ here.)]

Note 56:
‘Like the Ganges’ sands’ is being astronomically numerous or innumerable. 

Note 57: In the other ‘version’ of the Amitābha Sūtra, the Buddhas are stated to say this —  ‘You and other sentient beings, should believe this “Sūtra With Praises Of Inconceivable Meritorious Virtues And All Buddhas’ Mindful Protection”.’ (汝等众生,当信是称赞不可思议功德一切诸佛所护念经。)]

「又,舍利子!如是南方亦有现在日月光如来、名称光如来、大光蕴如来、迷卢光如来、无边精进如来,如是等佛如殑伽沙住在南方,自佛净土各各示现广长舌相遍覆三千大千世界周匝围绕,说诚谛言:『汝等有情皆应信受如是称赞不可思议佛土功德一切诸佛摄受法门。』

Moreover, Śāriputra, thus [in the] southern direction, likewise presently has [6] Sun [And] Moon Light Thus Come [One], [7] Renowned Light Thus Come [One], [8] Great Light Aggregate Thus Come [One], [9] Meru Light Thus Come [One], [10] Boundless Diligence Thus Come [One], such [and] other Buddhas, like [the] Ganges’ sands abiding [in the] southern direction, [in their] personal Buddhas’ Pure Lands, [with] each [and every] one manifesting [the] broad [and] long tongue’s form, [that] covers completely [his] three-thousandfold great-thousandfold world’s surroundings, speaking [these] sincerely truthful words, “You [and] other sentient [beings], should all faithfully accept such praises [of that] inconceivable Buddha land’s meritorious virtues, [and] all Buddhas’ protected [and] received Dharma Door.”

[Note 58:

[6] ‘Sun And Moon Light Thus Come One’ (日月光如来) is Candra-Sūrya-Pradīpa Tathāgata (日月灯佛: Sun And Moon Lamp Buddha).
[7] ‘Renown Light Thus Come One’ (名称光如来) is Yaśa-Prabha Tathāgata (名闻光佛: Renown Light Buddha).
[8] ‘Great Light Aggregate Thus Come One’ (大光蕴如来) is Mahārci-Skandha Tathāgata (大焰肩佛: Great Flaming Shoulders Buddha).
[9] ‘Meru Light Thus Come One’ (迷卢光如来) is Meru-Pradīpa Tathāgata (须弥灯佛: Sumeru Lamp Buddha).
[10] ‘Boundless Diligence Thus Come One’ (无边精进如来) is Ananta-Vīrya Tathāgata (无量精进佛: Immeasurable Diligence Buddha).]

「又,舍利子!如是西方亦有现在无量寿如来、无量蕴如来、无量光如来、无量幢如来、大自在如来、大光如来、光焰如来、大宝幢如来、放光如来,如是等佛如殑伽沙住在西方,自佛净土各各示现广长舌相遍覆三千大千世界周匝围绕,说诚谛言:『汝等有情皆应信受如是称赞不可思议佛土功德一切诸佛摄受法门。』

Moreover, Śāriputra, thus [in the] western direction, likewise presently has [11] Immeasurable Life Thus Come [One], [12] Immeasurable Aggregates Thus Come [One], [13] Immeasurable Light Thus Come [One], [14] Immeasurable Banner Thus Come [One], [15] Great Ease Thus Come [One], [16] Great Light Thus Come [One], [17] Light Flame Thus Come [One], [18] Great Treasure Banner Thus Come [One], [19] Emission [Of] Light Thus Come [One], such [and] other Buddhas, like [the] Ganges’ sands abiding [in the] western direction, [in their] personal Buddhas’ Pure Lands, [with] each [and every] one manifesting [the] broad [and] long tongue’s form, [that] covers completely [his] three-thousandfold great-thousandfold world’s surroundings, speaking [these] sincerely truthful words, “You [and] other sentient [beings], should all faithfully accept such praises [of that] inconceivable Buddha land’s meritorious virtues, [and] all Buddhas’ protected [and] received Dharma Door.”

[Note 59:

[11] ‘Immeasurable Life Thus Come One’ (无量寿如来) is Amitāyus Tathāgata (无量寿佛: Immeasurable Life Buddha).
[12] ‘Immeasurable Aggregates Thus Come One’ (无量蕴如来) is Amitā-Skandha Tathāgata (无量相佛: Immeasurable Form Buddha).
[13] ‘Immeasurable Light Thus Come One’ (无量光如来) is Amitā-Prabha Tathāgata (无量光佛: Immeasurable Light Buddha).
[14] ‘Immeasurable Banner Thus Come One’ (无量幢如来) is Amitā-Dhvaja Tathāgata (无量幢佛: Immeasurable Banner Buddha).
[15] ‘Great Ease Thus Come One’ (大自在如来) is Maheśvara Tathāgata (大自在佛: Great Ease Buddha).
[16] ‘Great Light Thus Come One’ (大光如来) is Mahā-Prabha Tathāgata (大光佛: Great Light Buddha).
[17] ‘Light Flame Thus Come One’ (光焰如来) is Jvalanā Tathāgata (光焰佛: Light Flame Buddha).
[18] ‘Great Treasure Banner Thus Come One’ (大宝幢如来) is Mahāratna-Ketu Tathāgata (宝相佛: Treasure Form Buddha).
[19] ‘Emission Of Light Thus Come One’ (放光如来) is Śuddha-Rashmi-Prabha Tathāgata (净光佛: Pure Land Buddha).

‘Immeasurable Light Thus Come One’, ‘Great Ease Thus Come One’ and ‘Light Flame Thus Come One’ are not stated in the other ‘version’ of the Amitābha Sūtra, while ‘Great Brightness Buddha’ (大明佛: Mahā-Prabhāsa Buddha) in it is not stated above. (3 more Buddhas here, 1 Buddha in other ‘version’ ‘missing’ here.)]

「又,舍利子!如是北方亦有现在无量光严通达觉慧如来、无量天鼓震大妙音如来、大蕴如来、光网如来、娑罗帝王如来,如是等佛如殑伽沙住在北方,自佛净土各各示现广长舌相遍覆三千大千世界周匝围绕,说诚谛言:『汝等有情皆应信受如是称赞不可思议佛土功德一切诸佛摄受法门。』

Moreover, Śāriputra, thus [in the] northern direction, likewise presently has [20] Immeasurable Light Adorned [With] Thoroughly Understood [And] Awakened Wisdom Thus Come [One], [21] Immeasurable Heavenly Drum’s Thundering Great Wonderful Sound Thus Come [One], [22] Great Aggregate Thus Come [One], [23] Light Net Thus Come [One], [24] Sāla Emperor Thus Come [One], such [and] other Buddhas, like [the] Ganges’ sands abiding [in the] northern direction, [in their] personal Buddhas’ Pure Lands, [with] each [and every] one manifesting [the] broad [and] long tongue’s form, [that] covers completely [his] three-thousandfold great-thousandfold world’s surroundings, speaking [these] sincerely truthful words, “You [and] other sentient [beings], should all faithfully accept such praises [of that] inconceivable Buddha land’s meritorious virtues, [and] all Buddhas’ protected [and] received Dharma Door.”

[Note 60: 

[20] ‘Immeasurable Light Adorned Thoroughly Understood And Awakened Wisdom Thus Come One’ (无量光严通达觉慧如来) is Amitā-Prabha-Vyūha-Abhijñā-Búddhi Tathāgata (无量光严通达觉慧佛: Immeasurable Light Adorned Thoroughly Understood And Awakened Wisdom Buddha).
[21] ‘Immeasurable Heavenly Drum’s Thundering Great Wonderful Sound Thus Come One’ (无量天鼓震大妙音如来) is Amitā-Divyā́-Dundubhi-Vaiśvānara-Nirghoṣa Tathāgata or Vaiśvānara-Nirghoṣa Tathāgata (最胜音佛: Most Victorious Voice Buddha).
[22] ‘Great Aggregate Thus Come One’ (大蕴如来) is Mahā-Skandha Tathāgata (大蕴佛: Great Aggregate Buddha).
[23] ‘Light Net Thus Come One’ (光网如来) is Jālinī-Prabha Tathāgata (网明佛: Net Of Brightness Buddha).
[24] ‘Sāla Emperor Thus Come One’ (娑罗帝王如来) is Śalendra-Rāja Tathāgata (娑罗帝王佛: Sāla Emperor Buddha).

‘Immeasurable Light Adorned Thoroughly Understood And Awakened Wisdom Thus Come One’, ‘Great Aggregate Thus Come One’ and ‘Sāla Emperor Thus Come One’ are not stated in the other ‘version’ of the Amitābha Sūtra, while ‘Flaming Shoulders Buddha’ (焰肩佛: Arci-Skandha Buddha), ‘Difficult-To-Defeat Buddha’ (难沮佛: Duṣpradharṣa Buddha) and ‘Sun Birth Buddha’ (日生佛: Āditya-Saṃbhava Buddha) in it are not stated above. (3 more Buddhas here, 3 Buddhas in other ‘version’ ‘missing’ here.)]

「又,舍利子!如是下方亦有现在示现一切妙法正理常放火王胜德光明如来、师子如来、名称如来、誉光如来、正法如来、妙法如来、法幢如来、功德友如来、功德号如来,如是等佛如殑伽沙住在下方,自佛净土各各示现广长舌相遍覆三千大千世界周匝围绕,说诚谛言:『汝等有情皆应信受如是称赞不可思议佛土功德一切诸佛摄受法门。』

Moreover, Śāriputra, thus [in the] below direction, likewise presently has [25] Manifestation [Of] All Wonderful Dharmas’ Right Principles [With] Constant Emission [Of] Fire King [Of] Supreme Virtues’ Bright Light Thus Come [One], [26] Lion Thus Come [One], [27] Renowned Thus Come [One], [28] Renowned Light Thus Come [One], [29] Right Dharma Thus Come [One], [30] Wonderful Dharma Thus Come [One], [31] Dharma Banner Thus Come [One], [32] Meritorious Virtues’ Friend Thus Come [One], [33] Meritorious Virtues’ Name Thus Come [One], such [and] other Buddhas, like [the] Ganges’ sands abiding [in the] below direction, [in their] personal Buddhas’ Pure Lands, [with] each [and every] one manifesting [the] broad [and] long tongue’s form, [that] covers completely [his] three-thousandfold great-thousandfold world’s surroundings, speaking [these] sincerely truthful words, “You [and] other sentient [beings], should all faithfully accept such praises [of that] inconceivable Buddha land’s meritorious virtues, [and] all Buddhas’ protected [and] received Dharma Door.”

[Note 61: 

[25] ‘Manifestation Of All Wonderful Dharmas’ Right Principles And Constant Emission Of Fire King Of Supreme Virtues’ Bright Light Thus Come One’ (一切妙法正理常放火王胜德光明如来) is Sárva-Saddharma-Darśana-Yukti-Sadā-Jvalanā-Rajottama-Śrī-Prabha Tathāgata (一切妙法正理常放火王胜德光明佛: Manifestation Of All Wonderful Dharmas’ Right Principles And Constant Emission Of Fire King Of Supreme Virtues’ Bright Light Buddha).[26] ‘Lion Thus Come One’ (师子如来) is Siṃhā Tathāgata (师子佛: Lion Buddha).
[27] ‘Renown Thus Come One’ (名称如来) is Yaśas Tathāgata (名闻佛: Renown Buddha).
[28] ‘Renown Light Thus Come One’ (誉光如来) is Yaśas-Prabhāsa Tathāgata (名光佛: Name Of Light Buddha).
[29] ‘Right Dharma Thus Come One’ (正法如来) is Dharma Tathāgata (达摩佛: Dharma Buddha).
[30] ‘Wonderful Dharma Thus Come One’ (妙法如来) is Saddharma Tathāgata (妙法佛: Wonderful Dharma Buddha).
[31] ‘Dharma Banner Thus Come One’ (法幢如来) is Dharma-Dhvaja Tathāgata (法幢佛: Dharma Banner Buddha).
[32] ‘Meritorious Virtues’ Friend Thus Come One’ (功德友如来) is Guṇa-Mitrá Tathāgata (功德友佛: Meritorious Virtues’ Friend Buddha).
[33] ‘Meritorious Virtues’ Name Thus Come One’ (功德号如来) is Guṇa-Nāma Tathāgata (功德号佛: Meritorious Virtues’ Name Buddha).

‘Manifestation Of All Wonderful Dharmas’ Right Principles And Constant Emission Of Fire King Of Supreme Virtues’ Bright Light Thus Come One’, ‘Wonderful Dharma Thus Come One’, ‘Meritorious Virtues’ Friend Thus Come One’ and ‘Meritorious Virtues’ Name Thus Come One’ are not stated in the other ‘version’ of the Amitābha Sūtra, while ‘Upholding Dharma Buddha’ (持法佛: Dharma-Dhara Buddha) in it is not stated above. (4 more Buddhas here, 1 Buddha in other ‘version’ ‘missing’ here.)]

「又,舍利子!如是上方亦有现在梵音如来、宿王如来、香光如来、如红莲华胜德如来、示现一切义利如来,如是等佛如殑伽沙住在上方,自佛净土各各示现广长舌相遍覆三千大千世界周匝围绕,说诚谛言:『汝等有情皆应信受如是称赞不可思议佛土功德一切诸佛摄受法门。』

Moreover, Śāriputra, thus [in the] above direction, likewise presently has [34] Brahmā Sound Thus Come [One], [35] Constellation King Thus Come [One], [36] Fragrant Light Thus Come [One], [37] Likeness-[To]-Red-Lotus-Flower Supreme Virtues Thus Come [One], [38] Manifestation [Of] All Beneficial Meanings Thus Come [One], such [and] other Buddhas, like [the] Ganges’ sands abiding [in the] above direction, [in their] personal Buddhas’ Pure Lands, [with] each [and every] one manifesting [the] broad [and] long tongue’s form, [that] covers completely [his] three-thousandfold great-thousandfold world’s surroundings, speaking [these] sincerely truthful words, “You [and] other sentient [beings], should all faithfully accept such praises [of that] inconceivable Buddha land’s meritorious virtues, [and] all Buddhas’ protected [and] received Dharma Door.”

[Note 62:

[34] ‘Brahmā Sound Thus Come One’ (梵音如来) is Brahmā-Ghoṣa Tathāgata (梵音佛: Brahmā Voice Buddha).
[35] ‘Constellation King Thus Come One’ (宿王如来) is Nakṣatra-Rāja Tathāgata (梵音佛: Constellation King Buddha).
[36] ‘Fragrant Light Thus Come One’ (香光如来) is Gandhā-Prabhāsa Tathāgata (香光佛: Fragrant Light Buddha).
[37] ‘Likeness-To-Red-Lotus-Flower Supreme Virtues Thus Come One’ (如红莲华胜德如来) is Utpala-Śrī-Kalpa Tathāgata (如红莲华胜德佛: Likeness To Red Lotus Flower Supreme Virtues Buddha).
[38] ‘Manifestation Of All Beneficial Meanings Thus Come One’ (示现一切义利如来) is Sarvārtha-Darśa Tathāgata (见一切义佛: Seeing-Of-All-Meanings Buddha).   

‘Likeness-To-Red-Lotus-Flower Supreme Virtues Thus Come One’ is not listed in the other ‘version’ of the Amitābha Sūtra, while ‘Fragrance Superior Buddha’ (香上佛: Gandhottamā Buddha), ‘Great Flaming Shoulders Buddha’ (大焰肩佛: Mahārci-Skandha Buddha), ‘Varicoloured Treasure Flower Adorned Body Buddha’ (杂色宝华严身佛: Ratna-Kusuma-Saṃpuṣpita-Gātra Buddha), ‘Śāla Tree King Buddha’ (娑罗树王佛: Śalendra-Rāja Buddha), ‘Treasure Flower Virtue Buddha’ (宝华德佛: Ratnotpalaśrī Buddha) and ‘Likeness-To-Sumeru-Mountain Buddha’ (如须弥山佛: Sumeru-Kalpa Buddha) in it are not stated above. (1 more Buddha here, 6 Buddhas in other ‘version’ ‘missing’ here.)]

「又,舍利子!如是东南方亦有现在最上广大云雷音王如来,如是等佛如殑伽沙住东南方,自佛净土各各示现广长舌相遍覆三千大千世界周匝围绕,说诚谛言:『汝等有情皆应信受如是称赞不可思议佛土功德一切诸佛摄受法门。』

Moreover, Śāriputra, thus [in the] southeastern direction, likewise presently has [39] Most Supreme Vast Thunder Sound King Thus Come [One], such [and] other Buddhas, like [the] Ganges’ sands abiding [in the] southeastern direction, [in their] personal Buddhas’ Pure Lands, [with] each [and every] one manifesting [the] broad [and] long tongue’s form, [that] covers completely [his] three-thousandfold great-thousandfold world’s surroundings, speaking [these] sincerely truthful words, “You [and] other sentient [beings], should all faithfully accept such praises [of that] inconceivable Buddha land’s meritorious virtues, [and] all Buddhas’ protected [and] received Dharma Door.”

[Note 63: [39] ‘Most Supreme Vast Thunder Sound King Thus Come One’ (最上广大云雷音王如来) is Uttamā-Vipulā-Meghā-Ghoṣa-Rāja Tathāgata, who is not stated in the other ‘version’ of the Amitābha Sūtra. (1 more Buddha here.)]  

「又,舍利子!如是西南方亦有现在最上日光名称功德如来,如是等佛如殑伽沙住西南方,自佛净土各各示现广长舌相遍覆三千大千世界周匝围绕,说诚谛言:『汝等有情皆应信受如是称赞不可思议佛土功德一切诸佛摄受法门。』

Moreover, Śāriputra, thus [in the] southwestern direction, likewise presently has [40] Most Supreme Sun Light’s Renowned Meritorious Virtues Thus Come [One], such [and] other Buddhas, like [the] Ganges’ sands abiding [in the] southwestern direction, [in their] personal Buddhas’ Pure Lands, [with] each [and every] one manifesting [the] broad [and] long tongue’s form, [that] covers completely [his] three-thousandfold great-thousandfold world’s surroundings, speaking [these] sincerely truthful words, “You [and] other sentient [beings], should all faithfully accept such praises [of that] inconceivable Buddha land’s meritorious virtues, [and] all Buddhas’ protected [and] received Dharma Door.”

[Note 64: [40] ‘Most Supreme Sun Light’s Renown Meritorious Virtues Thus Come One’ (最上日光名称功德如来) is Uttamā-Sūrya-Prabha-Yasho-Guṇa Tathāgata, who is not stated in the other ‘version’ of the Amitābha Sūtra. (1 more Buddha here.)]

「又,舍利子!如是西北方亦有现在无量功德火王光明如来,如是等佛如殑伽沙住西北方,自佛净土各各示现广长舌相遍覆三千大千世界周匝围绕,说诚谛言:『汝等有情皆应信受如是称赞不可思议佛土功德一切诸佛摄受法门。』

Moreover, Śāriputra, thus [in the] northwestern direction, likewise presently has [41] Immeasurable Meritorious Virtues’ Fire King’s Bright Light Thus Come [One], such [and] other Buddhas, like [the] Ganges’ sands abiding [in the] northwestern direction, [in their] personal Buddhas’ Pure Lands, [with] each [and every] one manifesting [the] broad [and] long tongue’s form, [that] covers completely [his] three-thousandfold great-thousandfold world’s surroundings, speaking [these] sincerely truthful words, “You [and] other sentient [beings], should all faithfully accept such praises [of that] inconceivable Buddha land’s meritorious virtues, [and] all Buddhas’ protected [and] received Dharma Door.”

[Note 65: [41] ‘Immeasurable Meritorious Virtues’ Fire King’s Bright Light Thus Come One’ (无量功德火王光明如来) is Amitā-Guṇa-Jvalanādhipati-Prabhāsa Tathāgata, who is not stated in the other ‘version’ of the Amitābha Sūtra. (1 more Buddha here.)]

「又,舍利子!如是东北方亦有現在无数百千俱胝广慧如来,如是等佛如殑伽沙住东北方,自佛净土各各示现广长舌相遍覆三千大千世界周匝围绕,说诚谛言:『汝等有情皆应信受如是称赞不可思议佛土功德一切诸佛摄受法门。』

Moreover, Śāriputra, thus [in the] northeastern direction, likewise presently has [42] Innumerable Hundred Thousand Koṭis [Of] Vast Wisdom Thus Come [One], such [and] other Buddhas, like [the] Ganges’ sands abiding [in the] northeastern direction, [in their] personal Buddhas’ Pure Lands, [with] each [and every] one manifesting [the] broad [and] long tongue’s form, [that] covers completely [his] three-thousandfold great-thousandfold world’s surroundings, speaking [these] sincerely truthful words, “You [and] other sentient [beings], should all faithfully accept such praises [of that] inconceivable Buddha land’s meritorious virtues, [and] all Buddhas’ protected [and] received Dharma Door.”

[Note 66: [42] ‘Innumerable Hundred Thousand Koṭis Of Broad Wisdom Thus Come One’ (无数百千俱胝广慧如来) is Asaṃkhyeya-Śata-Sāhasra-Koṭi-Nayuta-Vipulā-Búddhi Tathāgata, who is not stated in the other ‘version’ of the Amitābha Sūtra. (1 more Buddha here.)]

「又,舍利子!何缘此经名为『称赞不可思议佛土功德一切诸佛摄受法门』?舍利子!由此经中称扬赞叹无量寿佛极乐世界不可思议佛土功德,及十方面诸佛世尊为欲方便利益安乐诸有情故,各住本土现大神变说诚谛言,劝诸有情信受此法,是故此经名为『称赞不可思议佛土功德一切诸佛摄受法门』。

Moreover, Śāriputra, [for] what condition [is] this sūtra named as “Praises [Of That] Inconceivable Buddha Land’s Meritorious Virtues, [And] All Buddhas’ Protected [And] Received Dharma Door”? Śāriputra, due [to] this sūtra within, [being with] high praises [of] Immeasurable Life Buddha’s Land [Of] Ultimate Bliss’ inconceivable Buddha land’s meritorious virtues, and [the] ten directions’ all Buddha World-Honoured [Ones, who] for [the] desire [to] skilfully benefit [with] peace [and] bliss, [for] all sentient [beings] thus, each abiding in their] original lands, manifesting great supernormal transformations, speaking [these] sincerely truthful words, [to] exhort all sentient [beings to] faithfully accept this Dharma, therefore [is] this sūtra named as “Praises [Of That] Inconceivable Buddha Land’s Meritorious Virtues, [And] All Buddhas’ Protected [And] Received Dharma Door”.

[Note 67: In the other ‘version’ of the Amitābha Sūtra, this condition is not stated, although implied.]

「又,舍利子!若善男子或善女人,或已得闻,或当得闻,或今得闻,闻是经已,深生信解;生信解已,必为如是住十方面十殑伽沙诸佛世尊之所摄受;如说行者,一切定于阿耨多羅三藐三菩提得不退转,一切定生无量寿佛极乐世界清净佛土。是故,舍利子!汝等有情一切皆应信受领解我及十方佛世尊语,当勤精进,如说修行,勿生疑虑。

Moreover, Śāriputra, if good men or good women, if already attaining hearing, or will attain hearing, or now attain hearing, [having] heard [this]  sūtra already, deeply give rise [to] faith [and] understanding, [having] given rise [to] faith [and] understanding already, [they] definitely [will] by such abiding [in the] ten directions’ ten Ganges’ sands’ all Buddha World-Honoured [Ones, be] those protected [and] received. Thus said practitioners, [will] all definitely of Anuttarā Samyak Saṃbodhi attain non-retrogression, all definitely [be] born [in] Immeasurable Life Buddha’s Land [Of] Ultimate Bliss’ pure Buddha land. Therefore, Śāriputra, you [and] other sentient [beings], should all faithfully accept, receive [and] understand me, and [the] ten directions’ Buddha World-Honoured [Ones’] words, [and] should persevere diligently, [as] thus said cultivate practice, not giving rise [to] doubt.

[Note 68: In the other ‘version’ of the Amitābha Sūtra, ‘faith’ (信) is stated, instead of ‘faith and understanding’ (信解), although implied, as true faith leads to true understanding.

Note 69: In the other ‘version’ of the Amitābha Sūtra, ‘should persevere diligently, as thus said cultivate practice, not giving rise to doubt’ (当勤精进,如说修行,勿生疑虑) is not stated, although implied — ‘if they have faith, should vow, to be born in that land’ (若有信者,应当发愿,生彼国土) Those who have faith and vow to be born there should (naturally) persevere diligently to cultivate practice.]

「又,舍利子!若善男子或善女人,于无量寿极乐世界清净佛土功德庄严,若已发愿,若当发愿,若今发愿,必为如是住十方面十殑伽沙诸佛世尊之所摄受;如说行者,一切定于阿耨多羅三藐三菩提得不退转,一切定生无量寿佛极乐世界清净佛土。是故,舍利子!若有净信诸善男子或善女人,一切皆应于无量寿极乐世界清净佛土,深心信解,发愿往生,勿行放逸。

Moreover, Śāriputra, if good men or good women, of Immeasurable Life [Buddha’s] Land [Of] Ultimate Bliss’ pure Buddha land’s adornments, if already vowed, if will [be] vowing, if now vowing, [they] definitely [will] by such abiding [in the] ten directions’ ten Ganges’ sands’ all Buddha World-Honoured [Ones, be] those protected [and] received. Thus said practitioners, [will] all definitely of Anuttarā Samyak Saṃbodhi attain non-retrogression, all definitely [be] born [in] Immeasurable Life Buddha’s Land [Of] Ultimate Bliss’ pure Buddha land. Therefore, Śāriputra, if [there] are [those with] pure faith, all good men or good women, all should, of Immeasurable Life [Buddha’s] Land [Of] Ultimate Bliss’ pure Buddha land, [with the deeply] resolute mind [of] faith [and] understanding, vow [to be] reborn [there, and] not practise heedlessly.

[Note 70: In the other ‘version’ of the Amitābha Sūtra, ‘definitely will by such abiding in the ten directions’ ten Ganges’ sands’ all Buddha World-Honoured Ones, be those protected and received’ (必为如是住十方面十殑伽沙诸佛世尊之所摄受) is not stated in this context, although implied — ‘if there are good men and good women, who hear this sūtra, accept and uphold it, and hear all these Buddhas’ names, all these good men and good women, will all by all Buddhas, be mindfully protected’ (闻诸佛名者,是诸善男子、善女人,皆为一切诸佛之所护念). 

Note 71: In the other ‘version’ of the Amitābha Sūtra, ‘not practise heedlessly’ (勿行放逸) is not stated.]  

「又,舍利子!如我今者,称扬赞叹无量寿佛极乐世界不可思议佛土功德;彼十方面诸佛世尊,亦称赞我不可思议无边功德,皆作是言:『甚奇希有!釋迦寂静釋迦法王如来、应、正等觉、明行圆满、善逝、世间解、无上丈夫、调御士、天人师、佛世尊,乃能于是堪忍世界五浊恶时,所谓:劫浊、诸有情浊、诸烦恼浊、见浊、命浊,于中证得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提,为欲方便利益安乐诸有情故,说是世间极难信法。』是故,舍利子!当知我今于此杂染堪忍世界五浊恶时,证得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提,为欲方便利益安乐诸有情故,说是世间极难信法,甚为希有,不可思议。

Moreover, Śāriputra, like I now, highly praise Immeasurable Life Buddha’s Land [Of] Ultimate Bliss’ inconceivable Buddha land’s meritorious virtues, those ten directions’ all Buddha World-Honoured [Ones], likewise praise my inconceivable [and] boundless meritorious virtues, all making this statement, “Extremely wonderful [and] rare! [The] Śākyan Tranquil [One], Śākyan Dharma King Thus Come [One, One] Worthy [Of Offerings], Equally [And] Rightly Awakened [One], Wisdom [And] Practice Perfected [One], Well-Gone [One], World-Knower, Unsurpassable Great [One], Tamer [And] Harmoniser, Heavenly [And] Human Beings’ Teacher, Buddha World-Honoured [One, was] even able [to], in this Endurance Land’s Five Defilements’ Evil Period, [with] so-called Kalpa’s Defilement, all Sentient Beings’ Defilement, all Afflictions’ Defilement, Views’ Defilement [and] Lifespan’s Defilement within, realise [and] attain Anuttarā Samyak Saṃbodhi, for [the] desire [to] skilfully benefit all sentient beings [with] peace [and] bliss thus, spoke this Dharma [that the] world [has] extreme difficulty believing [in].” Therefore, Śāriputra, [you] should know [that] I now, in this mixed [and] defiled Endurance Land’s Five Defilements’ Evil Period, realised [and] attained Anuttarā Samyak Saṃbodhi, for [the] desire [to] skilfully benefit all sentient beings [with] peace [and] bliss thus, spoke this Dharma [that the] world [has] extreme difficulty believing [in, which is] extremely rare [and] inconceivable.

[Note 72: In the other ‘version’ of the Amitābha Sūtra, the Ten Epithets are not stated. 

Note 73: In the other ‘version’ of the Amitābha Sūtra, ‘extremely wonderful and rare and inconceivable’ (甚奇希有,不可思议) are not stated.] 

「又,舍利子!于此杂染堪忍世界五浊恶时,若有净信诸善男子或善女人,闻说如是一切世间极难信法,能生信解、受持、演说、如教修行。当知是人甚为希有,无量佛所曾种善根。是人命终定生西方极乐世界,受用种种功德庄严清净佛土大乘法乐,日夜六时亲近供养无量寿佛,游历十方供养诸佛,于诸佛所闻法受记,福慧资粮疾得圆满,速证无上正等菩提。」

Moreover, Śāriputra, in this mixed [and] defiled Endurance Land’s Five Defilements’ Evil Period, if [there] are [those with] pure faith, all good men or good women, [who] hear thus said, [this] Dharma [that] all [in the] world [have] extreme difficulty believing [in], able [to] give rise [to] faith [and] understanding, accepting, upholding [and] expounding [it], as taught cultivating practice, [it] should [be] known [that] these persons [are] extremely rare, [through] immeasurable Buddhas those [who] had already planted good roots. These people, [at their] lives’ end, definitely [will be] born [in the] Western Land [Of] Ultimate Bliss, [to] receive [and] use all kinds [of] meritorious virtues’ adornments [of the] pure Buddha land, [with the] Great Vehicle’s Dharma joy. [In] day [and] night, [during the] six periods [be] close to, [for] making offerings [to] Immeasurable Life Buddha, travelling [in the] ten directions [to] make offerings [to] many Buddhas, at many Buddhas’ places hearing [the] Dharma [and] receiving predictions, [with] blessings’ [and] wisdom’s provisions swiftly attaining perfection, [to] quickly realise Unsurpassable Equal [And] Right Bodhi.’

[Note 74: In the other ‘version’ of the Amitābha Sūtra, this encouragement is not stated.]  

时,薄伽梵说是经已。尊者舍利子等诸大声闻,及诸菩萨摩诃萨众,无量天、人、阿素洛等,一切大众闻佛所说皆大欢喜信受奉行。

Then, [the] Bhagavān, [having] said this sūtra already, [the] honoured Śāriputra [and] all other Great Voice-Hearers, and all Bodhisattva-Mahāsattvas’ assemblies, immeasurable heavenly [beings], humans, asuras [and] others, [with] all [in the] great assembly, [having] heard that [the] Buddha said, [were] all greatly joyful, [as they] faithfully accepted [to] practise [it].

[Note 75: ‘Others’ (等) include sentient beings from the other (non-hell) realms not stated, such as wandering spirits, hungry ghosts and animals, who are adequately intelligent to understand.]

[2020年1月优婆塞沈时安中英译
In January 2020 by Upāsaka Shen Shi’an translated from Chinese to English, with notes added. Do contact for latest version if to be reproduced. Feedback for improvement is most gratefully welcomed.]

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