Sutras

[00] Preface Section (Of Contemplation Sūtra)《观经》序分

《观经》
Contemplation Sūtra

《佛说观无量寿佛经》
[The] Sūtra [In Which The] Buddha Speaks [Of] Contemplation [On] Immeasurable Life Buddha

《观极乐国土、无量寿佛、观世音菩萨、大势至菩萨经》
[The] Sūtra [Of] Contemplation [On The] Land [Of] Ultimate Bliss, Immeasurable Life Buddha, Contemplator [Of The] World’s Sounds Bodhisattva [And] Great Power Arrived Bodhisattva

《净除业障,生诸佛前经》
[The] Sūtra [On] Pure Eradication [Of] Karmic Obstacles [For] Birth Before All Buddhas

[公元 424 年] 刘宋西域三藏法师畺良耶舍译
[In 424 C.E. By] Liú Sòng [Dynasty’s] Western Regions’ Tripiṭaka Dharma Master Kālayaśas Translated [To Chinese]

公元 2020 年优婆塞沈时安译
[In] 2020 C.E. By] Upāsakā Shěn Shí’ān Translated [To English]

[For ease of detailed studying and editing, square brackets show necessary connective words used in translation, to be removed for final published version later, with addition of glossary and notes. Suggestions are welcome for more precise choice of words. Námó Āmítuófó.]

序分
[00] Preface Section

如是我闻,一时,佛在王舍城,耆阇崛山中。与大比丘众,千二百五十人俱。菩萨三万二千,文殊师利法王子而为上首。

Thus is [as] I [have] heard. [At] one time, [the] Buddha [was] at Rājagṛha city’s Mount Gṛdhrakūṭa within. With [the] Great Bhikṣus’ assembly, [of one] thousand two hundred [and] fifty persons together. [And] Bodhisattvas [of] thirty-two thousand, [with] Mañjuśrī Dharma Prince then as [the] foremost.

尔时王舍大城,有一太子,名阿阇世。随顺调达恶友之教,收执父王频婆娑罗,幽闭置于七重室内,制诸群臣,一不得往。

At that time, Rājagṛha’s great city had a prince named Ajātaśatru. Accordingly complying [with] Devadatta, [the] instruction of [his] evil friend, [he] arrested [his] father King Bimbisāra, [had him] imprisoned [and] placed in [a] seven-layered room within, [and] restricted all ministers, [with] no one allowed [to] go [towards him].

国太夫人,名韦提希。恭敬大王,澡浴清净,以酥蜜和麨,用涂其身。诸璎珞中,盛蒲萄浆,密以上王。

[The] King’s Queen [was] named Vaidehī. [With] reverence [for the] Great King, [she] bathed [and] cleansed [herself, and] with ghee, honey and fried flour, used [them for] spreading [on] her body. [With] all necklaces within, filled [with] grape syrup, secretly with [these] offered [to the] King.

尔时大王,食麨饮浆,求水漱口。漱口毕已,合掌恭敬,向耆阇崛山,遥礼世尊,而作是言:「大目犍连,是吾亲友,愿兴慈悲,授我八戒。」

At that time, [the] Great King, ate [the] fried flour, drank [the] syrup, [and] requested water [to] rinse [his] mouth. [Having] rinsed [his] mouth completely already, [with] joined palms reverencing, towards Mount Gṛdhrakūṭa, [from] afar prostrated [to the] World-Honoured [One], and made this statement, ‘[The] Great Maudgalyāyana, [who] is my relative [and] friend, may [you] give rise [to] loving-kindness [and] compassion, [to] confer me [with the] Eight Precepts.’

时目犍连,如鹰隼飞,疾至王所。日日如是,授王八戒。世尊亦遣尊者富楼那,为王说法。如是时间,经三七日,王食麨蜜,得闻法故,颜色和悦。

Then, Maudgalyāyana, like [a] hawk [and] falcon flying, swiftly reached [the] King’s place. Day after day thus, conferring [the] King [with the] Eight Precepts. [The] World-Honoured [One] likewise sent Venerable Pūrṇa, for [the] King, [to] speak [the] Dharma. Thus [with] time, passing three [of] seven days, [with the] King eating fried flour [and] honey, attaining hearing [of the] Dharma thus, [his] countenance [was] gentle [and] joyful.

时阿阇世,问守门者:「父王今者,犹存在耶?」

Then, Ajātaśatru asked [the] gate-keeper, ‘[Of my] father [the] King now, [does he] still remain alive?’

时守门人白言:「大王,国太夫人,身涂麨蜜,璎珞盛浆,持用上王。沙门目连,及富楼那,从空而来,为王说法,不可禁制。」

Then, [the] gate-keeper said, ‘Great King, [the] Queen, [with her] body spread [with] fried flour [and] honey, [and] necklaces filled [with] syrup, hold [and] use [them to] offer [the]  King. [The] Śramaṇas Maudgalyāyana and Pūrṇa, [who] from [the] sky then come, for [the] King, [to] speak [the] Dharma, cannot [be] prohibited.’

时阿阇世,闻此语已,怒其母曰:「我母是贼,与贼为伴。沙门恶人,幻惑咒术,令此恶王,多日不死。」即执利剑,欲害其母。

Then, Ajātaśatru, [having] heard this said already, [with] anger [at] his mother said, ‘My mother is [a] traitor, with [a] traitor as companion. [Those] Śramaṇas [are] evil persons, [using] illusions [to] confuse [with] sorcery skills, [to] enable this evil King, [to] not die [for] many days.’ Immediately holding [a] sharp sword, [he] desired [to] harm his mother.

时有一臣,名曰月光,聪明多智,及与耆婆,为王作礼。白言:「大王,臣闻毗陀论经说,劫初以来,有诸恶王,贪国位故,杀害其父,一万八千,未曾闻有无道害母。王今为此杀逆之事,污刹利种,臣不忍闻。是旃陀罗,我等不宜复住于此。」时二大臣,说此语竟,以手按剑,却行而退。

Then, [there] was a minister named Moon Light, [who was] clever [and with] much wisdom, and with Jīvaka, paid homage to [the] King, saying, ‘Great King, [we] ministers [have] heard [the] Vedic commentaries [and] scriptures say, [that] since [the] kalpa’s beginning, [although there] were many evil Kings, [with] greed [for] kingship’s position thus, killing [and] harming their fathers, [of] eighteen thousand, not previously heard were [those] without [the] path, [who] harmed [their] mothers. [The] King, if doing this matter of heinous killing, defiling [the] Kṣatriya caste, [we] ministers cannot bear [to] hear [of it. As this] is [of] Caṇḍālas, we [and] others [will] not [be] appropriate [to] continue dwelling in here.’ Then, [the] two great ministers, [having] said these words completely, with hands grasping [their] swords, walked backwards and withdrew.

时阿阇世,惊怖惶惧,告耆婆言:「汝不为我耶?」

Then, Ajātaśatru, surprised [and] frightened, told Jīvaka, ‘[Will] you not help me?’

耆婆白言:「大王,慎莫害母。」

Jīvaka said, ‘Great King, [be] cautious [to] not [to] harm [your] mother.’

王闻此语,忏悔求救,即便舍剑,止不害母。敕语内官,闭置深宫,不令复出。

[The] King hearing these words, repented [and] requested [his] help. Immediately then giving up [his] sword, [he] stopped [and did] not harm [his] mother. [He] ordered [his] inner officials [to] imprison [and] place [her in an] inner palace, [to] not enable [her to] again exit.

时韦提希,被幽闭已,愁忧憔悴。遥向耆阇崛山,为佛作礼,而作是言:「如来世尊,在昔之时,恒遣阿难,来慰问我。我今愁忧,世尊威重,无由得见。愿遣目连、尊者阿难,与我相见。」作是语已,悲泣雨泪,遥向佛礼。

Then, Vaidehī, [having] received imprisonment already, [became] worried, wan [and] sallow. [From] afar towards Mount Gṛdhrakūṭa, to [the] Buddha [she] paid homage, and made this statement, ‘[The] Thus Come World-Honoured [One], when in [the] past, constantly sent Ānanda, [to] come [and] console me. I now [am] worried, [with the] World-Honoured [One’s] majesty, [having] no way [to] attain sight [of it]. May [you] send Maudgalyāyana [and] Venerable Ānanda, [to] help me, [to] meet one another.’ [Having] made this statement already, sorrowfully weeping [and] raining tears, [from] afar towards [the] Buddha [she] prostrated.

未举头顷,尔时世尊,在耆阇崛山,知韦提希心之所念。即敕大目犍连,及以阿难,从空而来。佛从耆阇崛山没,于王宫出。

Yet [to] raise [her] head, just then, at that time, [the] World-Honoured [One], at Mount Gṛdhrakūṭa, knew that thought of Vaidehī. Immediately, [he] ordered Great Maudgalyāyana and Ānanda, from [the] sky [to] then come. [The] Buddha from Mount Gṛdhrakūṭa disappeared, [and] in [the] royal palace appeared.

时韦提希,礼已举头,见世尊释迦牟尼佛,身紫金色,坐百宝莲华。目连侍左,阿难侍右。释梵护世诸天,在虚空中,普雨天华,持用供养。

Then, Vaidehī, [having] prostrated already, raising [her] head, saw [the] World-Honoured Śākyamuni Buddha, [with his] body purple-gold [in] colour, seated [on a] hundred treasures’ lotus flower. [With] Maudgalyāyana attending [on his] left, [and] Ānanda attending [on his] right. [With] Śakra, Brahma, [and] all world-protecting heavenly [beings], in empty space within, universally raining heavenly flowers, holding [and] using [them to] make offerings.

时韦提希,见佛世尊,自绝璎珞,举身投地,号泣向佛。白言:「世尊,我宿何罪,生此恶子?世尊复有何等因缘,与提婆达多,共为眷属?唯愿世尊,为我广说无忧恼处,我当往生,不乐阎浮提浊恶世也。此浊恶处,地狱饿鬼畜生盈满,多不善聚。愿我未来,不闻恶声,不见恶人。今向世尊,五体投地,求哀忏悔。唯愿佛日,教我观于清净业处。」

Then, Vaidehī, seeing [the] Buddha World-Honoured [One], personally abandoned [her] necklaces, [with her] entire body thrown [to the] ground, wailing towards [the] Buddha, said ‘World-Honoured [One], I [in the] past, [created] what transgression, [to give] birth [to] this evil son? [The] World-Honoured [One] moreover, have what kind [of] cause [and] condition, [to be with] Devadatta, together as family members? [I] only wish [that the] World-Honoured [One, will] for me extensively speak [of] where [is] without worries [and] afflictions, [that] I should [be] reborn, [as I do] not [have] joy [in this] Jambudvīpa’s defiled evil period. This defiled evil place, [with] hell-beings, hungry ghosts [and] animals filled fully, [is with] much [that is] unvirtuous gathered. May I [in the] future, not hear evil voices, [and] not see evil persons. Now towards [the] World-Honoured [One, with] five [parts of my] body thrown [to the] ground, seeking pity [with] repentance. [I] only wish [that the] sun[-like] Buddha, [will] teach me [to] contemplate with regard to [that] place [with] pure karma.’

尔时世尊,放眉间光。其光金色,遍照十方无量世界。还住佛顶,化为金台,如须弥山。十方诸佛净妙国土,皆于中现。或有国土,七宝合成。复有国土,纯是莲华。复有国土,如自在天宫。复有国土,如玻璃镜。十方国土,皆于中现。有如是等无量诸佛国土,严显可观,令韦提希见。

At that time, [the] World-Honoured [One] emitted light [from] between [his] brows. His light golden [in] colour, illuminated everywhere [in the] ten directions’ immeasurable worlds. Returning [to] abide [on the] Buddha’s crown, manifesting as [a] gold dais, like Mount Sumeru. [The] ten directions’ all Buddhas’ pure [and] wonderful lands, [with] all in [them] within appear. Perhaps having lands, [of] seven treasures composed. Moreover, having lands, [that] are purely [with] lotus flowers. Moreover having lands, like Ease Heaven’s palace. Moreover, having lands, like crystal mirrors. [The] ten directions’ lands, [with] all in [them] within appear. Having such [and] other immeasurable all Buddha lands, majestic, illustrious [and] worth contemplating, enabling Vaidehī [to] see [them].

时韦提希白佛言:「世尊,是诸佛土,虽复清净,皆有光明。我今乐生极乐世界阿弥陀佛所,唯愿世尊,教我思惟,教我正受。」

Then, Vaidehī [to the] Buddha said, ‘World-Honoured [One], all these Buddha lands, although [are] alike [in] purity, [with] all having bright lights, I today [have] joy [for] birth [in] that Land [Of] Ultimate Bliss [of] Amitā[bha] Buddha, only wishing [that the] World-Honoured [One] teach me [to] contemplate [it, and] teach me [to] rightly receive [it].’

尔时世尊,即便微笑,有五色光,从佛口出。一一光照频婆娑罗王顶。

At that time, [the] World-Honoured [One] immediately then [gave a] smile, [that] had five colours’ lights, from [the] Buddha’s mouth emitting. [With] each [and every] one light illuminating King Bimbisāra‘s crown.

尔时大王,虽在幽闭,心眼无障。遥见世尊,头面作礼。自然增进,成阿那含。

At that time, [the] Great King, although imprisoned, [his] mind’s eye [was] without obstructions. [From] afar seeing [the] World-Honoured [One, with his] head [and] face [he] paid homage. Naturally increasing [in] progress, accomplishing [as an] Anāgāmin.

尔时世尊,告韦提希:「汝今知否?阿弥陀佛,去此不远。汝当系念,谛观彼国,净业成者。我今为汝广说众譬,亦令未来世一切凡夫,欲修净业者得生西方极乐国土。

At that time, [the] World-Honoured [One] told Vaidehī, ‘[Do] you now know [this] or not? Amitā[bha] Buddha, from here [is] not far. You should [with] continual mindfulness, attentively contemplate that land, [and] those [with] pure karma accomplished. I [will] now for you extensively speak [with] all analogies, [to] likewise enable future lives’ all ordinary beings, those desiring [to] cultivate pure karma, [to] attain birth [in the] Western Land [Of] Ultimate Bliss.

欲生彼国者,当修三福。一者,孝养父母,奉事师长,慈心不杀,修十善业。二者,受持三归,具足众戒,不犯威仪。三者,发菩提心,深信因果,读诵大乘,劝进行者。如此三事,名为净业。」

Those desiring birth [in] that land, should cultivate Three Blessings. First, [is to have] filial support [of their] fathers [and] mothers, attend [to their] teachers [and] seniors, [with] loving-kindness’ mind not kill, [and] cultivate [the] Ten Good Karmas. Second, [is to] accept [and] uphold [the] Threefold Refuge, [be] complete [with] all precepts, [and] not violate majestic conduct. Third, [is to] give rise [to the] Bodhi Mind, [have] profound faith [in] cause [and] effect, study [and] recite [the] Great Vehicle’s [sūtras, and] encourage progress [of] practitioners. Thus, these three matters, [are] named [as] “pure karma”.’

佛告韦提希:「汝今知否?此三种业,乃是过去未来现在,三世诸佛,净业正因。」

[The] Buddha told Vaidehī, ‘[Do] you now know [this] or not? These three kinds [of] karmas precisely are, [in the] past, future [and] present, [the] three periods’ all Buddhas’ pure karma’s right causes.’

佛告阿难,及韦提希:「谛听谛听,善思念之。如来今者,为未来世一切众生,为烦恼贼之所害者,说清净业。善哉韦提希,快问此事。 

[The] Buddha told Ānanda and Vaidehī, ‘Attentively listen, attentively listen, [and] carefully consider [with] mindfulness of [this. The] Thus Come [One] now, for future lives’ all sentient beings, for those by afflictions’ thieves harmed, [will] speak [of] pure karma. Excellent, Vaidehī, [for] quickly asking [about] this matter.

阿难,汝当受持,广为多众,宣说佛语。如来今者,教韦提希,及未来世一切众生,观于西方极乐世界。以佛力故,当得见彼清净国土。如执明镜,自见面像。见彼国土极妙乐事,心欢喜故,应时即得无生法忍。」

Ānanda, you should accept [and] uphold [this, to] extensively for all assemblies, proclaim [the] Buddha’s words. [The] Thus Come [One] now, [will] teach Vaidehī and future lives’ all sentient beings, [to] contemplate [the] Western Land [Of] Ultimate Bliss. With [the] Buddha’s power thus, [you] should attain sight [of] that Pure Land. Like holding [a] bright mirror, personally seeing [your] face’s image. Seeing that land’s ultimately wonderful [and] blissful matters, [with] minds joyful thus, immediately then attaining Non-Arising [Of] Dharmas’ Forbearance.’

佛告韦提希:「汝是凡夫,心想羸劣,未得天眼,不能远观。诸佛如来,有异方便,令汝得见。」

[The] Buddha told Vaidehī, ‘You are [an] ordinary being, [with your] mind’s thoughts weak [and] inferior, yet [to] attain [the] heavenly eye, not able [to] far contemplate. All Buddha Thus Come [Ones], have special skilful means, [to] enable you [to] attain sight [of it].’

时韦提希白佛言:「世尊,如我今者,以佛力故,见彼国土。若佛灭后,诸众生等,浊恶不善,五苦所逼,云何当见阿弥陀佛极乐世界?」

Then, Vaidehī [to the] Buddha said, ‘World-Honoured [One], those like I now, with [the] Buddha’s power thus, see that land. If after [the] Buddha’s Parinirvāṇa, [of] all sentient beings [and] others, defiled, evil [and] unvirtuous, [and] those [by the] Five Sufferings bothered, how should [they] see Amitā[bha] Buddha’s Land [Of] Ultimate Bliss?’

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正宗分
Main Principles’ Section
【第一观:日想】
[The First Contemplation: Sun’s Contemplation]

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