Sutras

Selected Pure Land Teachings From The Mahāparinirvāṇa Sūtra《大般涅槃经》净土教理精选

《大般涅槃经》寿命品第一:

尔时,三千大千世界,以[释迦牟尼]佛神力故,地皆柔软,无有丘墟、土沙、砾(lì)石、荆棘、毒草;众宝庄严,犹如西方无量寿佛极乐世界。

Mahāparinirvāṇa Sūtra’s Chapter 1 [On] Lifespan:

At that time, [the] three-thousandfold great-thousandfold world, with [Śākyamuni] Buddha’s supernormal power thus, [the] ground all [became] soft, without having hills, wastelands, soil, sand, pebbles, rocks, thistles, thorns [and] poisonous grasses; [with] many treasures adorned, similar to [the] Western Immeasurable Life Buddha’s Land [Of] Ultimate Bliss.

Note 1: The Buddha was demonstrating to the assembly on how, with his fully purified perception, he is able to see anywhere, including this world system, which we perceive as a defiled land, to be like a Pure Land, using Amitābha Buddha’s (Āmítuófó) Pure Land as a popular ‘benchmark’ for comparison. In the Immeasurable Life Sūtra《无量寿经》and the Contemplation Sūtra《观经》, the Buddha offered visions of Āmítuófó’s Pure Land to the assemblies instead.

是时,大众悉见十方如微尘等诸佛世界,如于明镜,自观己身,见诸佛土,亦复如是。…

At this time, [the] great assembly all saw [the] ten directions’ all other Buddha lands, like fine dust [motes], like in [a] bright mirror, personally seeing [their] own bodies, seeing all Buddha lands likewise thus…

Note 2: Only Buddhas have this ability to experience Pure Land constantly at all times and places, and to offer beings with karmic affinity similar short experiences. For us to experience Pure Land constantly, the only ways are to fully purify the world we are in to become a Buddha, or to be reborn in a Buddha’s actual Pure Land first, to learn from a working model, on how to purify a world to become a Buddha. (Note that any world with a Buddha’s influence is called a Buddha land, be it a defiled land or a Pure Land.) 

《大般涅槃经》光明遍照高贵德王菩萨品第十之四:

[释迦牟尼佛]: 善男子 [光明遍照高贵德王菩萨摩诃萨],「菩萨摩诃萨,修大涅槃成就具足第四功德,有十种事。何等为十。

Mahāparinirvāṇa Sūtra’s Part 4 [Of] Chapter 10 [On] King [Of] Bright Light’s Pervasive Illumination [With] Noble Virtues Bodhisattva:

[Śākyamuni Buddha]: Good man [i.e. King (Of) Bright Light’s Pervasive Illumination (With) Noble Virtues Bodhisattva Mahāsattva], Bodhisattva Mahāsattvas, [when] cultivating [for] great Nirvāṇa’s accomplishment, complete [the] fourth meritorious virtue, [which are] ten kinds [of] matters. What [are] as [the] ten?

[1] 一者,根深难可倾拔。

[1] First, [is to be] deep-rooted [and] difficult [to] be upset [or] uprooted.

[2] 二者,自身生决定想。

[2] Second, [is to] personally give rise [to] determined thought.

[3] 三者,不观福田及非福田。

[3] Third, [is to] not see fields [of] blessings and non-fields [of] blessings.

[4] 四者,修净佛土。

[4] Fourth, [is to] cultivate purification [of] Buddha lands.

[5] 五者,灭除有馀。

[5] Fifth, [is to] eradicate remaining [defilements].

[6] 六者,断除业缘。

[6] Sixth, [is to] completely eradicate [negative] karmic conditions.

[7] 七者,修清净身。

[7] Seventh, [is to] cultivate purification [of the] body.

[8] 八者,了知诸缘。

[8] Eighth, [is to] clearly understand all [causes and] conditions.

[9] 九者,离诸怨敌。

[9] Ninth, [is to] depart [from] all enmity.

[10] 十者,断除二边。…

[10] Tenth, [is to] completely eradicate [the] two extremes [e.g. of eternalism and nihilism]…

Note 3: Note that the fourth matter necessary for Buddhahood is to purify worlds to become Pure Lands, by first focusing upon one. The Buddha as below, explains that he already fully purified a world elsewhere, even as he attempts to play a part in purifying this world, out of great compassion, before letting the next Buddha-to-be continue doing so.

云何名为净佛国土。

What is named as ‘[to cultivate] purification [of] Buddha lands’?

Note 4: As a ‘formula’, the purification of Buddha lands begins from personal purifying the mind of these Ten Evil Karmas (十恶业) with Bodhicitta, as listed below from [i] to [x], to perfect the Ten Good Karmas (十善业), for realisation of Buddhahood and for guiding all to it. The meritorious virtues from cultivation are dedicated to all beings to partake of their corresponding benefits. This also creates karmic affinity for them to enter one’s future Pure Land. 

菩萨摩诃萨修大涅槃微妙经典,为阿耨多罗三藐三菩提,度众生故,[i] 离杀害心。

Bodhisattva Mahāsattvas cultivate [the] great Nirvāṇa’s refined [and] wonderful sūtras, for Anuttara Samyak Saṃbodhi, delivering sentient beings thus, [i] depart [from the] mind [of] killing [and] harming.

以此善根,愿与一切众生共之,愿诸众生得寿命长,有大势力,获大神通。

With these good roots, aspiring [to] share them with all sentient beings, wishing all sentient beings [to] attain long lifespans, have great power, [and] obtain great supernormal [powers].

以是誓愿因缘力故,于未来世成佛之时,国土所有一切众生,得寿命长,有大势力,获大神通。

With this vow’s power [as] cause [and] condition thus, in future lives, when accomplishing Buddhahood, all sentient beings [in their] lands, attain long lifespans, have great power, [and] great supernormal [powers].

复次,善男子,菩萨摩诃萨修大涅槃微妙经典,为阿耨多罗三藐三菩提,度众生故,[ii] 离偷盗心。

Furthermore, good man, Bodhisattva Mahāsattvas cultivate [the] great Nirvāṇa’s refined [and] wonderful sūtras, for Anuttara Samyak Saṃbodhi, delivering sentient beings thus, [ii] depart [from the] mind [of] stealing.

以此善根愿与一切众生共之,愿诸佛国土地,所有纯是七宝,众生富足,所欲自恣(zì)。

With these good roots, aspiring [to] share them with all sentient beings, wishing all Buddha lands’ grounds are all purely with seven treasures, [with] sentient beings [having] abundance, [of] that desired without restriction.

以此誓愿因缘力故,于未来世成佛之时,所得国土,纯是七宝,众生富足,所欲自恣。

With this vow’s power [as] cause [and] condition thus, in future lives, when accomplishing Buddhahood, their attained lands [are] all purely with seven treasures, [with] sentient beings [having] abundance, [of] that desired without restriction.

复次,善男子,菩萨摩诃萨修大涅槃微妙经典,为阿耨多罗三藐三菩提,度众生故,[iii] 离婬欲心。

Furthermore, good man, Bodhisattva Mahāsattvas cultivate [the] great Nirvāṇa’s refined [and] wonderful sūtras, for Anuttara Samyak Saṃbodhi, delivering sentient beings thus, [iii] depart [from the] mind [of] sexual desire.

以此善根愿与一切众生共之,愿诸佛土所有众生,无有贪欲瞋恚痴心,亦无饥渴苦恼之患。

With these good roots, aspiring [to] share them with all sentient beings, wishing all Buddha lands’ all sentient beings [are] without having minds [of] greedy desires, hatred [and] delusion, also without misfortune of suffering [and] afflictions [from] hunger [and] thirst.

以是誓愿因缘力故,于未来世成佛之时,国土众生,远离贪婬瞋恚痴心,一切无有饥渴苦恼。

With this vow’s power [as] cause [and] condition thus, in future lives, when accomplishing Buddhahood, [their] lands’ sentient beings, forever depart [from] minds [of] greedy lust, hatred [and] delusion, all without having suffering [and] afflictions [from] hunger [and] thirst.

复次,善男子,菩萨摩诃萨修大涅槃微妙经典,为阿耨多罗三藐三菩提,度众生故,[iv] 离妄语心。

Furthermore, good man, Bodhisattva Mahāsattvas cultivate [the] great Nirvāṇa’s refined [and] wonderful sūtras, for Anuttara Samyak Saṃbodhi, delivering sentient beings thus, [iv] depart [from the] mind [of] false speech.

以此善根愿与一切众生共之,愿诸佛土常有茂林花果香树,所有众生得妙音声。

With these good roots, aspiring [to] share them with all sentient beings, wishing all Buddha lands’ constantly have luxuriant forests [with] flowers, fruits [and] fragrant trees, [that] all sentient beings attain wonderful sounds [of the Dharma from].

以是誓愿因缘力故,于未来世成佛之时,所有国土常有茂林花果香树,其中众生悉得清净上妙音声。

With this vow’s power [as] cause [and] condition thus, in future lives, when accomplishing Buddhahood, all [their] lands constanly have luxuriant forests [with] flowers, fruits [and] fragrant trees, that sentient beings within all attain pure [and] supremely wonderful sounds [of the Dharma from].

复次,善男子,菩萨摩诃萨修大涅槃微妙经典,为阿耨多罗三藐三菩提,度众生故,[v] 远离两舌。

Furthermore, good man, Bodhisattva Mahāsattvas cultivate [the] great Nirvāṇa’s refined [and] wonderful sūtras, for Anuttara Samyak Saṃbodhi, delivering sentient beings thus, far [v] depart [from] double-tongued [speech].

以此善根愿与一切众生共之,愿诸佛土所有众生常共和合,讲说正法。

With these good roots, aspiring [to] share them with all sentient beings, wishing all Buddha lands’ all sentient beings [to] constantly together harmoniously, speak [the] right Dharma.

以是誓愿因缘力故,成佛之时,国土所有一切众生悉共和合,讲论法要。

With this vow’s power [as] cause [and] condition thus, when accomplishing Buddhahood, all sentient beings of [their] lands all together harmoniously, discuss [on the] Dharma’s essence.

复次,善男子,菩萨摩诃萨修大涅槃微妙经典,为阿耨多罗三藐三菩提,度众生故,[vi] 远离恶口。

Furthermore, good man, Bodhisattva Mahāsattvas cultivate [the] great Nirvāṇa’s refined [and] wonderful sūtras, for Anuttara Samyak Saṃbodhi, delivering sentient beings thus, far [vi] depart [from] harsh speech.

以此善根愿与一切众生共之,愿诸佛土地平如掌,无有沙砾瓦石之属,荆(jīng)蕀(jí)恶刺,所有众生其心平等。

With these good roots, aspiring [to] share them with all sentient beings, wishing all Buddha lands’ grounds [to be] even like [a] palm, without having sand, pebbles, tiles, rocks as composed, [without] thistles [with] vicious thorns, [with] all sentient beings, their minds [being] equanimous.

以是誓愿因缘力故,于未来世成佛之时,所有国土地平如掌,无有沙砾,荆蕀恶刺,所有众生其心平等。

With this vow’s power [as] cause [and] condition thus, in future lives, when accomplishing Buddhahood, all [their] lands’ grounds [are] even like [a] palm, without having sand, pebbles, thistles [with] vicious thorns, [with] all sentient beings, their minds [being] equanimous.

复次,善男子,菩萨摩诃萨修大涅槃微妙经典,为阿耨多罗三藐三菩提,度众生故,[vii] 离无义语。

Furthermore, good man, Bodhisattva Mahāsattvas cultivate [the] great Nirvāṇa’s refined [and] wonderful sūtras, for Anuttara Samyak Saṃbodhi, delivering sentient beings thus, [vii] depart [from] meaningless speech.

以此善根愿与一切众生共之,愿诸佛土所有众生无有苦恼。

With these good roots, aspiring [to] share them with all sentient beings, wishing all Buddha lands’ all sentient beings [to be] without having suffering [and] afflictions.

以是誓愿因缘力故,于未来世成佛之时,国土所有一切众生无有苦恼。

With this vow’s power [as] cause [and] condition thus, in future lives, when accomplishing Buddhahood, [their] lands’ all sentient beings [are] without having suffering [and] afflictions.

复次,善男子,菩萨摩诃萨修大涅槃微妙经典,为阿耨多罗三藐三菩提,度众生故,[viii] 远离贪嫉。

Furthermore, good man, Bodhisattva Mahāsattvas cultivate [the] great Nirvāṇa’s refined [and] wonderful sūtras, for Anuttara Samyak Saṃbodhi, delivering sentient beings thus, far [viii] depart [from] greed [and] jealousy.

以此善根愿与一切众生共之,愿诸佛土一切众生无有贪嫉恼害邪见。

With these good roots, aspiring [to] share them with all sentient beings, wishing all Buddha lands’ all sentient beings [to be] without having hateful evil views [of] greed [and] jealousy.

以此誓愿因缘力故,于未来世成佛之时,国土所有一切众生悉无贪嫉恼害邪见。

With this vow’s power [as] cause [and] condition thus, in future lives, when accomplishing Buddhahood, [their] lands’ all sentient beings [are] without having hateful evil views [of] greed [and] jealousy.

复次,善男子,菩萨摩诃萨修大涅槃微妙经典,为阿耨多罗三藐三菩提,度众生故,[ix] 远离恼害。

Furthermore, good man, Bodhisattva Mahāsattvas cultivate [the] great Nirvāṇa’s refined [and] wonderful sūtras, for Anuttara Samyak Saṃbodhi, delivering sentient beings thus, far [ix] depart [from] hatred.

以此善根愿与一切众生共之,愿诸佛土所有众生,悉共修习大慈大悲,得一子地。

With these good roots, aspiring [to] share them with all sentient beings, wishing all Buddha lands’ all sentient beings, [to] all together cultivate great loving-kindness [and] great compassion, [to] attain [the] ground [of] one child, [which is to realise equanimous compassion for all beings, seeing each to be equally precious, like one’s only child].   

以是誓愿因缘力故,于未来世成佛之时,世界所有一切众生,悉共修习大慈大悲,得一子地。

With this vow’s power [as] cause [and] condition thus, in future lives, when accomplishing Buddhahood, [their] lands’ all sentient beings, all together cultivate great loving-kindness [and] great compassion, [to] attain [the] ground [of] one child.

复次,善男子,菩萨摩诃萨修大涅槃微妙经典,为阿耨多罗三藐三菩提,度众生故,[x] 远离邪见。

Furthermore, good man, Bodhisattva Mahāsattvas cultivate [the] great Nirvāṇa’s refined [and] wonderful sūtras, for Anuttara Samyak Saṃbodhi, delivering sentient beings thus, far [x] depart [from] evil views.

以此善根愿与一切众生共之,愿诸佛土所有众生悉得摩诃般若波罗蜜。

With these good roots, aspiring [to] share them with all sentient beings, wishing all Buddha lands’ all sentient beings [to] all attain Mahā Prajñā Pāramitā.

以是誓愿因缘力故,于未来世成佛之时,世界众生悉得受持摩诃般若波罗蜜。

With this vow’s power [as] cause [and] condition thus, in future lives, when accomplishing Buddhahood, [their] lands’ sentient beings all attain receiving [and] upholding [of] Mahā Prajñā Pāramitā.

是名菩萨修净佛土。…

This [is] named [as how] Bodhisattvas ‘[cultivate] purification [of] Buddha lands.’…

尔时光明遍照高贵德王菩萨摩诃萨言,如佛所说,若有菩萨修大涅槃,悉作如是十事功德,如来何故唯修九事不修净土?…

At that time, King [Of] Bright Light’s Pervasive Illumination [With] Noble Virtues Bodhisattva Mahāsattva said, ‘Like [the] Buddha as said, if [there] are Bodhisattvas cultivating [for] great Nirvāṇa, [who] all create such ten matters’ meritorious virtues, [of the] Thus Come [One], why [did he] only cultivate nine matters, [and] not cultivate [a] Pure Land?’…

佛言,善男子,我于往昔亦常具修如是十事。

The Buddha said, ‘Good man, I in [the] past also constantly [and] completely cultivated such ten matters.

一切菩萨及诸如来,无有不修是十事者。

All Bodhisattvas and all Thus Come [Ones], are without those [who do] not cultivate these ten matters.

若使世界不净,充满诸佛世尊于中出者,无有是处。

Supposing [that] worlds impure, [are] full [of] all Buddha World-Honored [Ones] within arising, [there] is no such thing.

善男子,汝今莫谓诸佛出兴不净世界。当知是心不善狭劣。

Good man, you now [should] not say [that] all Buddhas arise [in] impure worlds. [You] should know [that] this mind [is] not good, [is] narrow [and] inferior.

汝今当知,我实不出阎浮提界。

You now should know, [that] I truly [did] not arise [from] Jambudvīpa’s world [here].

譬如,有人说言,此界独有日月,他方世界无有日月,如是之言无有义理。

For example, [if there] are persons saying, [that] only this world has [a] sun [and] moon, [that] other directions’ worlds are without suns [and] moons, such words are without reason.

若有菩萨发如是言,此佛世界秽恶不净,他方佛土清净庄严,亦复如是。

If [there] are Bodhisattvas [who] give rise [to] this statement, [that] this Buddha’s world [is] filthy [and] impure, [that] other directions’ Buddha Lands [are] pure [and] magnificent, [this is] likewise thus, [without reason].

善男子,西方去此娑婆世界,度三十二恒河沙等诸佛国土,彼有世界名曰无胜。彼土何故名曰无胜?

Good man! [To the] Western [direction] from this Sahā World, passing thirty-two Ganges Rivers’ sands’ [of] many other Buddha Lands, there is [a] world named “Unsurpassable”. [Of] that land, why [is it] named “Unsurpassable”?

其土所有严丽之事,皆悉平等无有差别,犹如西方安乐世界,亦如东方满月世界。

That land’s all matters, are [of] magnificence [and] beauty, all [are] equal, without differences, similar to [that of Amitābha Buddha’s (阿弥陀佛: Āmítuófó)] Western [Pure] Land [Of] Peace [And] Bliss, likewise like [the Medicine Master Buddha’s (药师佛: Yàoshīfó)] Eastern [Pure] Land [Of The] Full Moon.

Note 5: The Buddha again uses Āmítuófó’s Pure Land as a popular ‘benchmark’ for comparison. The mention of his Pure Land to be similar to the two reminds us that all Pure Lands are equally unsurpassable.

我于彼土出现于世,为化众生故,于此界阎浮提中,现转法轮。

I, from that land appeared in [this] life, for transforming sentient beings thus, in this world [of] Jambudvīpa within, appearing [to] turn [the] Dharma wheel.

Note 6: Despite having his own Pure Land to ‘govern’ as his teaching ‘headquarters’, the Buddha also manifests in this world to teach, out of great compassion.

非但我身独于此中,现转法轮,一切诸佛亦于此中,而转法轮。

Not only does my body alone in this [world] within, appears [to] turn [the] Dharma wheel, all [other] Buddhas [are] likewise in this [world] within, and turn [the] Dharma wheel.

以是义故,诸佛世尊非不修行如是十事。

With this meaning thus, [it is] not [that] all Buddha World-Honoured [Ones do] not cultivate practice [of] such ten matters.

善男子,慈氏菩萨,以誓愿故,当来之世,令此世界清净庄严。

Good man, Maitreya Bodhisattva, with [his] vows thus, [in a] future life, [will] enable this world [to] become pure [and] magnificent.

以是义故,一切诸佛所有世界无不严净。

With this meaning thus, all worlds of Buddhas [are] without [those] not magnificent [and] pure.’

《大般涅槃经》梵行品第八之五:

[释迦牟尼佛]: 假使一月,常以衣食,供养恭敬,一切众生,不如有人,一念念佛,所得功德,十六分一。

Mahāparinirvāṇa Sūtra’s Part 5 [Of] Chapter 8 [On] Purification Practice:

[Śākyamuni Buddha]: If [for] one month, constantly with clothing [and] food, offering reverently, [to] all sentient beings, [this is] not equal [to] having [a] person, [with] one thought mindful [of] Buddha, [with] those attained meritorious virtues, [being] sixteen parts’ one [i.e. one-sixteenth: 1/16].

Note 7: Such is the great meritorious nature of practising mindfulness of a Buddha’s name sincerely once, what more if more, often and regularly.

Namo Amituofo : Translation and notes by Shen Shi’an

相关文章
Related Article:

释迦牟尼佛有自己的净土吗?
Does Śākyamuni Buddha Have His Own Pure Land?
https://thedailyenlightenment.com/2019/04/does-sakyamuni-buddha-have-his-own-pure-land

Please be mindful of your speech, Amituofo!

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

error: Alert: Content is protected !!