Biographies

Biography Of The Tenth Patriarch Of The Chinese Pure Land Tradition Great Master Jiéliú 净土宗十祖截流大师传

出家法名:释截流(大师)
地位:净土宗十祖
俗名:蒋(姓)梦憨(名)
出生地:今江苏宜兴
出生年:1628 | 往生年:1682
代表作品:《起一心精进念佛七期规式》、《净土警语》、《劝发真信》


Monastic Dharma Name: Shì Jiéliú (Great Master)
Status: Tenth Patriarch Of The Pure Land Tradition (School)
Family Name: Jiǎng (Surname) Mènghān (Given Name)
Place Of Birth: Today’s Jiāngsū Province, Yíxìng County
Year Of Birth: 1628 C.E. | Year Of Rebirth: 1682 C.E.
Best Known Works: Rules And Format For Giving Rise To Wholehearted Diligent Mindfulness Of Buddha During Seven-Day Retreats’ Period, Pure Land Admonitions, Exhortation To Give Rise To True Faith

截流大师生于1628年,江苏宜兴人。俗姓蒋,父亲全昌精通儒佛,与憨山大师是朋友。憨山大师示寂后三年,一天晚上,全昌梦见憨山大师进卧室,随后,大师出世,由此全昌为儿子取名为梦憨。

Great Master Jiéliú was born in 1628 C.E, at Jiāngsū Province’s Yíxìng County, in a Jiǎng family. His father, Quánchāng, was well-versed in Confucianism and Buddhism, and was a friend of Great Master Hānshān. After Great Master Hānshān had manifested passing for three years, one night, Quánchāng dreamt of Great Master Hānshān entering his bedroom. Following after, Great Master Jiéliú was born. Due to this, Quánchāng named his son as Mènghān (i.e. ‘Dream of Hānshān’).

大师长大成人时,父母相继逝世,遂萌发修道的志向。23岁那年,投武林理安寺箬庵通问禅师出家。出家后,精进修持,胁不至席地修了五年,契悟法源。

When Great Master grew up to become an adult, his parents passed away one after another. Thereupon, he sprouted the aspiration of cultivating the Buddhist path. That year, at the age of 23, he sought refuge at Wǔlín’s Lǐ’ān Monastery and renounced the household life through Chan Master Ruò’ān Tōngwèn. After his renunciation, he diligently cultivated. With his sides not reaching the mat (to lie down for sleep), he cultivated for five years, and awoke to the Dharma’s origin.

通问禅师圆寂后,大师住报恩寺,遇同参道友息庵瑛法师,劝大师修净土法门。又遇钱塘樵石法师,引导大师修习天台教观。大师与樵石法师同入净室,修法华三昧,宿慧顿然通达,穷彻佛教的精髓。

After Chán Master Tōngwèn passed away, while Great Master dwelt at Bào’ēn Monastery, he met fellow practitioner and spiritual friend Dharma Master Xī’ān Yīng, who encouraged Great Master to cultivate the Pure Land Dharma Door. He also met Dharma Master Qiántáng Qiáoshí, who guided Great Master to cultivate Tiāntái teachings and meditation practice. When Great Master and Dharma Master Qiáoshí shared the same room and cultivated Dharma Flower Samādhi, with past lives’ wisdom, Great Master suddenly understood thoroughly and completely penetrated the essence of the Buddha’s teachings.

大师著述不多,然从其《净土警语》所示,大师注重真修实干,在切实的净业修持过程中,予以理性的指点,言言见谛,语语归真,应机施药,实乃末世众生的醍醐妙味。兹将大师净土思想略标为三。

Great Master did not have many written works. However, from what revealed in ‘Pure Land Admonitions’, Great Master emphasized on true cultivation and diligent practice. For all within practical Pure Land cultivation’s process, bestowing with rational pointers, with every word for seeing the truth, returning to the true, responding to opportunities giving medicine, truly then for the Dharma-Ending Age’s sentient beings, with the Dharma’s finest wonderful flavour. Now with the Great Master’s Pure Land thought, it can be briefly labelled to be with these three parts.

(1) 真信切愿,成办净业

大师于《劝发真信》一文中,将真信的内涵及无真信的弊端,和盘托出。大师云:“净业行人须具真实心,须具真实信心。苟无真信,虽念佛、持斋、放生、修福,只是世间善人,报生善处受乐。当受乐时,即造业,既造业已,必堕苦。正眼观之,较他一阐提、旃陀罗辈*,仅差一间耳。如是信心,岂为真实?

(1) True Faith And Sincere Aspiration For Accomplishing Pure Land Practice

Great Master, in his text, ‘Exhortation To Give Rise To True Faith’ fully revealed the meaning of true Faith and the disadvantages of untrue faith. Great Master said, ‘Pure Land practitioners must be complete with true Faith’s mind. If without true Faith, although mindful of the Buddha, upholding purification precepts, liberating animals and cultivating blessings, one is only a worldly good person, whose reward is birth in a good realm to receive joy. When receiving joy, immediately creating evil karma. Since with created karma already, definitely falling into suffering. Looking directly with contemplating of this, comparing him with Icchantikas, and those of the Caṇḍāla* class, only differing by one gap. Of such faith, how can it be true?

所谓真信的内涵有三:第一要信得心、佛、众生三无差别。我是未成之佛,弥陀是已成之佛,觉性无二。我虽昏迷倒惑,觉性未曾失。我虽积劫轮转,觉性未曾动。故曰莫轻未悟一念,回光便同本得。

So-called true Faith’s meaning has three aspects. First, there must be Faith that the mind, the Buddha and sentient beings are not two and not different in essence. I am a yet to be accomplished Buddha, and Amitābha is an already accomplished Buddha, with nature of awakening that is not two. I although am muddle-headed, inverted and confused, my nature of awakening has yet to be lost. I although have accumulated kalpas of rebirths, my nature of awakening has yet to move. Thus, do not slight those yet to awaken, whom with one thought, can return their light within, to then be with the same original nature attained.

第二要信得我是理性佛、名字佛,弥陀是究竟佛,性虽无二,位乃天渊。若不专念彼佛,求生彼国,必至随业流转,受苦无量。所谓法身流转五道,不名为佛,名为众生矣。

Second, there must be Faith that I am a Principle Nature Buddha, a Name Buddha, and Amitābha is an Ultimate Buddha, with nature although not two, positions are then like the sky and abyss apart. If not with focused mindfulness of that Buddha, seeking birth in that land, I will definitely follow karma to be reborn, to receive suffering immeasurably. This so-called Dharma Body that is reborn in the five paths, is not named as a Buddha, but named as a sentient being.

第三要信得我虽障深业重,久居苦域,是弥陀心内之众生;弥陀虽万德庄严,远在十万亿刹之外,是我心内之佛。既是心性无二,自然感应道交。我之苦切必能感,佛之慈悲必能应,如磁石吸铁,无可疑者。所谓佛念众生,如母忆子。子若忆母,如母忆时,母子历生不相违远。若众生心,忆佛念佛,现前当来必定见佛,去佛不远也。

Third, there must be Faith that I although have obstacles deep and negative karma heavy, and long dwelt in suffering’s land, am a sentient being in Amitābha Buddha’s mind within. Amitābha Buddha although has ten thousand meritorious virtues’ majesty, as far away as one hundred thousand koṭis of lands, he is the Buddha in my mind within. Since our mind-nature is not two, naturally will there be connection and response for mutual interaction. My this pressing sincerity is definitely able to connect, and the Buddha’s loving-kindness and compassion are definitely able to respond, like a magnet attracting iron, without that to doubt. This is so-called the Buddha being mindful of sentient beings, is like a Mother recollecting her child. The child if recollecting the Mother, like when the Mother recollects, the Mother and child, passing through life, will not be far apart from each other. If sentient beings’ minds recollect the Buddha, are mindful of the Buddha, now or in the future, they will definitely see the Buddha, with the Buddha not far away.

具如上真信者,虽一毫之善,一尘之福,皆可回向西方,庄严净土;何况持斋秉戒,放生布施,读诵大乘,供养三宝,种种善行,岂不足充净土资粮?唯其信处不真,遂乃沦于有漏。故今修行,别无要术,但于二六时中,加此三种真信,则一切行履,无烦改辙矣。”大师的剖析,精辟入微,契理契机,慧眼独具,堪称法炬。

According to the above, those with true Faith, although with one fine hair of good, or one dust mote of blessing, all can be dedicated to be reborn in the Western Pure Land, to adorn the Pure Land. Moreover, with upholding of purification and holding of precepts, liberating animals and giving, studying and reciting the Great Vehicle’s sūtras, making of offerings to the Triple Gem, and all kinds of good practices, how can these be not enough to fulfil as Pure Land’s provisions? Only when these Faith’s aspects are not true, thereupon then sinking to be with outflows. From ancient times until now, for cultivation, there is no other essential method, than to only, in the two six periods within, be added with these three kinds of true Faith. Then with all practices carried out, without need to bother about changing track.’ Great Master’s analysis is insightful and detailed, according with principles and according with opportunities [to guide], with unique wisdom’s eye, that can be called the Dharma’s torch.

(2) 激扬行人的厌欣心

大师洞悉净业行人虽终日念佛,往生成就者鲜少的原因,对症投药,婆心切切。往生未保的原因是:“爱桩未拔,情缆犹牢。唯贪爱能漂溺行人,障往生法。但情爱一分疏淡,则净业一分成熟,于生死岸头庶得解脱。”

(2) Rousing & Raising Practitioners’ Revulsed & Joyful Minds

Great Master clearly understood that although some Pure Land practitioners practise mindfulness of Buddha all day, those who accomplish rebirth in Pure Land might be very few. With its reasons, he prescribed the right medicine for their illness, benevolently, eagerly and urgently. The reason for yet to guarantee rebirth is this — ‘With attachment’s post yet to be uprooted, by passions’ hawser still imprisoned. Only greedy attachment is able to drift and drown practitioners, and obstruct the Dharma to be reborn in Pure Land. However, if attachment is with one part thinned, then will Pure Land practice be with one part matured, so as to, from this shore of births and deaths, attain liberation.’

“今之富贵利达者,或贪粗敝声色,不知苦本;或著蜗角勋名,不悟虚幻;或复爱殖货利,会计经营,现在碌碌一生,将来随业流转。阿弥陀佛刹中依正庄严,无量胜妙乐事,不闻不知,从生至死未曾发一念向往之心;反不如穷愚困厄之夫,多能念佛,从冥入明,转生胜处。故敬劝净业行人具真实愿,发忻厌心,视三界如牢狱,视家园如桎梏,视声色如鸠毒,视名利如缰锁,视数十年穷通际遇如同昨梦,视娑婆一期报命如在逆旅,唯以念佛求生净土为务。果能如是,若不生净土者,诸佛皆成诳语矣,愿共勉之。”

‘Today, those wealthy, honoured and prestigious, perhaps are with greed for coarse and harmful sounds and forms, not knowing suffering’s root, perhaps are attached to a snail’s horn of little glory, not awakening to its illusoriness, perhaps are repeatedly with attachment breeding for material wealth and gain, accounting and managing. Now busying, for all of their lives, in the future according to karma to be reborn. In Amitābha Buddha’s land within, are majestic circumstantial and direct rewards, with immeasurable supremely wonderful and blissful matters, yet not hearing and not knowing them, from birth till death, not giving rise to one thought with the mind looking forward to it. This is instead not as good as those poor and foolish, suffering from disasters, from darkness entering brightness, to be reborn in its superior abode. Thus reverently encouraging practitioners of Pure Land practice to be complete with true Aspiration, to give rise to minds of joy and revulsion, to see the three realms as prison, to see their homelands as shackles, to see worldly sounds and forms as collected poisons, to see fame and profit as reins and chains, to see several decades of poverty and prestige, with ups and downs of life as yesterday’s dream, to see this Sahā World’s one retribution life as a guest-house, only with mindfulness of the Buddha, with seeking birth in his Pure Land as their key task. If able to do thus, and if there are those not born in Pure Land, all Buddhas would have become those with deceitful speech. Thus, may all encourage one another to strive on.’

大师的开示,确实点出了末世净业行人的通病。真信愿与欣厌心具内在同构,无真信愿生不起欣慕净土厌离娑婆之心;无欣厌心亦不能圆满真信愿心。大师激扬行人欣厌心,令其强固信愿,成办净业,用心可谓良苦。

Great Master’s teaching truly pointed out the common problems of the Dharma-Ending Age’s Pure Land practitioners. True Faith and Aspiration with the joyful and revulsed mind are complete within with the same composition. As without true Faith and Aspiration to be born, there is no arising of the mind of joyful Aspiration for Pure Land and revulsed renunciation of the Sahā World. Without the joyful and revulsed mind, they are not able to perfect the mind of true Faith and Aspiration. Great Master roused and raised practitioners’ joyous and revulsed mind, to enable them to strengthen and consolidate their Faith and Aspiration to accomplish their Pure Land practice. His diligent thoughtfulness can be said to be earnest indeed.

(3) 事理一心不乱之诠解

大师从七日精进念佛修持的角度,阐述事理一心的相状与境界。大师云:“七日持名,贵在一心不乱,无间无杂,非必以快念多念为胜。但不缓不急,密密持去,使心中一句佛号,历历分明,著衣吃饭,行住坐卧,一句洪名绵密不断,如呼吸相似。既不散乱,亦不沉没,如是持名,可谓事上能一心精进者。”

(3) Explanation Of Wholeheartedness Without Being Scattered In Practice And Principle

From the point of view of practice of seven-day diligent mindfulness of Buddha, Great Master elaborated on the form and state of wholeheartedness in practice and principle. Great Master said, ‘For seven-days’ upholding of the Buddha’s name, what valued is wholeheartedness without being scattered, being uninterrupted and not mixed, with no must to regard fast reciting and much reciting as superior. However, not sluggish and not hurried, closely upholding it, enable the mind within to have only one line of the Buddha’s name, distinctly and clearly. When wearing clothes, eating meals, walking, standing, sitting and lying down, with the one line of the great name recited finely, carefully and unceasingly, like breathing similar. Both not scattered, and not sunken in drowsiness, thus upholding the Buddha’s name, can be said to be in practice, those who are wholeheartedly diligent.’

“若能体究万法皆如,无有二相,所谓生佛不二,自他不二,因果不二,依正不二,苦乐不二,欣厌不二,取舍不二,菩提烦恼不二,生死涅槃不二,是诸二法,皆同一相,一道清净,不用勉强差排,但自如体究。体究之极,与自本心忽然契合,方知著衣吃饭总是三昧,嬉笑怒骂无非佛事,一心乱心,终成戏论。二六时中,觅毫发许异相不可得。如是了达,方是真正学道人一心精进持名。前一心似难而易,后一心似易而难;但能前一心者,必可往生净土;兼后一心者,可阶上品往生。然此两种一心,皆是博地凡夫边事,凡有心者,皆可修学。”

‘If able to experience and investigate that the ten thousand dharmas are all thusness, not having two forms, that so-called sentient beings and Buddhas are not two, self and other are not two, cause and effect are not two, circumstantial and direct rewards are not two, suffering and bliss are not two, joyfulness and revulsion are not two, obtaining and relinquishing are not two, Bodhi and afflictions are not two, birth and death with Nirvāṇa are not two. All these dualistic dharmas, all are of the same one form, together pure, not needing to be forcibly differentiated and eliminated, only with ease experienced and investigated. With utmost of experiencing and investigating, with oneself’s original mind suddenly aligned, then knowing wearing clothes and having meals are all samādhi, playfully laughing and angrily scolding are with none not Buddhas’ practices. Wholeheartedness without being scattered in the end becomes frivolous discourse. Within the two six periods, seeking a fine hair with different forms is unattainable. Thus with understanding reached, then is it true practitioners’ wholehearted and diligent upholding of the name. The former wholeheartedness seems difficult yet easy, and the latter wholeheartedness seems easy yet difficult. Only able to have the former wholeheartedness, definitely can there be rebirth in Pure Land. Simultaneously with the latter wholeheartedness, can rank with a high grade’s rebirth. However, these two kinds of wholeheartedness, are all worldly ordinary beings’ side issues, as all those who have Aspiration can cultivate and learn them.’

综上所述,大师的净土思想重在事修上着力,诚笃恳切,总欲净业行人如法如理地修持,出离娑婆苦宅,往生极乐之邦。大师一生自行化生的行业,即以此为主旋律。今日捧读大师文句,亦有回肠荡气之感,无愧于净宗祖师的风范。

To summarise the above stated, Great Master’s Pure Land thought emphasizes on putting effort into practical cultivation. Seriously and sincerely, he invariably desired Pure Land practitioners to accord with the Dharma’s principles in cultivation, to renounce the Sahā World’s suffering house, to be reborn in the country of Ultimate Bliss. For Great Master’s entire lifetime of personal practice and transformation of sentient beings, this is regarded as their main theme. Today, reading Great Master’s textual explanations, likewise stirs ‘soul’-stirring feelings, as worthy of a Pure Land Patriarch’s demeanour.

康熙三年,大师结庵于杭州法华山西溪河渚间,专修净业。康熙九年,大师住虞山普仁院,倡兴莲社,信从者日众。又尝起精进念佛七,有的念佛期长达三年。大师作《起一心精进念佛七期规式》甚为详明。不拣道俗,饶益众生,成就净业。大师居普仁院12年,于康熙21年7月9日示寂,时年55岁。

In the third year of Emperor Kāngxī’s reign, Great Master set up a monastery in Hangzhou’s Mount Fahua, within Xīxī River’s islet, which focused on cultivation of Pure Land practice. In Kāngxī’s ninth year, Great Master stayed at Mount Yú’s Pǔrén Court, where he founded a lotus society, with those who took refuge by the day becoming many. He also attempted to commence seven-day mindfulness of Buddha’s diligent retreats, with some practising for as long as three years. Great Master wrote ‘Rules And Format For Giving Rise To Wholehearted Diligent Mindfulness Of Buddha During Seven-Day Retreats’ Period’ with great detail and clarity. Not choosing between monastics and laypersons, it was for benefitting all sentient beings, to accomplish Pure Land practice. Great Master dwelt at PǔrénCourt for 12 years, and on the ninth day of the seventh lunar month in Kāngxī’s 21st year, he manifested passing away, then at 55 years old.

当时有一名叫孙翰的人病逝,一昼夜又复活了。复活后即对他人说:“我被冥界的狱卒勾摄,到了阎罗殿下,黑暗中,忽然睹见光明炽盛,香华布满虚空,阎罗王赶忙伏地顶礼,迎接西归的大师。我问西归的大师是谁,回答是截流大师。我幸蒙大师的光明照触,得以放还阳间。”同一日,亦有一病死的吴氏子,一夕后也复活过来,陈述在阎罗殿所见到的情形,与孙翰所说的一样。

At that time, there was a man named Sūn Hàn who passed away due to sickness, who revived after a day and night. After he revived, he immediately told others, ‘I was by the nether world’s jailers arrested, and when I reached Yama Hall below, within the darkness, I suddenly saw bright light burning vigorously, as fragrance and flowers spread fully in space. King Yama hurriedly went down to the ground to prostrate, to welcome a Great Master’s return to the Western Pure Land. I asked who was the Great Master who returned to the Western Pure Land. The answer was Great Master Jiéliú (i.e. the style name of Great Master Xíngcè). I was fortunate to receive touch by the Great Master’s bright light, with it attaining release to return to the world of the living.’ On the same day, there was a son of the Wú family, who also died of sickness. After a night, he also revived, and described all that he saw in Yama Hall, which was with all that Sūn Hàn said the same.

由此可证大师真修实证的境界不可思议,道盛德隆,由近代印光大师推为净土宗第十代祖师,亦属慧眼独具也。

From this, it can prove that Great Master’s true cultivation’s state is inconceivable, with his path flourishing and virtues profound. He was thus in recent times by Great Master Yìnguāng honoured as the Tenth Patriarch of the Pure Land Tradition, to likewise belong to those with unique wisdom’s eye.

完整中文原文 Complete Chinese text: donglin.org
图片 Pictures: 互联网 Internet
英译 English translation: purelanders.com


Please be mindful of your speech, Amituofo!

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

error: Content is protected !!