Sutras

[31] Thirty-First Chapter On Five Evils And Five Goodnesses (Of Immeasurable Life Sūtra)《无量寿经》五恶五善第卅一

五恶五善第卅一
Thirty-First [Chapter On] Five Evils [And] Five Goodnesses

然世人薄俗,共诤不急之事。于此剧恶极苦之中,勤身营务,以自给济。无尊无卑、无贫无富,少长男女,共忧钱财。有无同然,忧思适等。屏营愁苦,累念积虑。为心走使,无有安时。

However, [the] world’s people [are] superficial [and] mundane, together disputing [over] matters of non-urgency. In this severe evil [and] utmost suffering within, toiling [with their] bodies [and] striving, for themselves providing aid. Regardless [of the] noble or lowly, poor [or] rich, young [or] old, male [or] female, together worrying [about] wealth [and] property. [Those who] have [and have] not [are] alike thus, [with] worried thoughts matching equally. [With] fear [and] trepidation, sorrow [and] distress, accumulating worries [and] amassing anxiety. By [their] minds ordered [about], not having peaceful moments.

有田忧田,有宅忧宅。牛马六畜、奴婢钱财、衣食什物,复共忧之。重思累息,忧念愁怖。横为非常水火盗贼怨家债主,焚漂劫夺,消散磨灭。忧毒忪忪,无有解时。结愤心中,不离忧恼。心坚意固,适无纵捨。或坐摧碎,身亡命终,弃捐之去,莫谁随者。尊贵豪富,亦有斯患。忧惧万端,勤苦若此,结众寒热,与痛共居。

[Those who] have fields worry [about] fields, with residences worry [about] residences. [With] cows, horses, [the] six domesticated animals, slave servants, wealth, properties, clothing, food [and] miscellaneous things, [they are] again together worried [about] them. [With] repeated considering [and] wearied breathing, [with] worried thoughts [of] sorrow [and] fear. [They are] unexpectedly by unusual waters, fires, robbers, enemies [and] creditors, burnt, drifted [away], seized by force, dissipated, scattered [and] obliterated. [With] worries’ poison terrified [and] uneasy, not having relieved moments. Forming resentment within [their] minds, not departing [from] worries [and] afflictions. [With] minds firm [and] thoughts stubborn, following without releasing [and] abandoning [them]. Perhaps staying destroyed [and] broken, [when their] bodies die [as] life ends, throwing them away, [there is] none whatsoever that [can] follow. [Those with] honour, power [and] wealth, likewise have such suffering. [With] worries [and] apprehensions [of] ten thousand kinds, [with] utmost suffering like this, forming all colds [and] fevers, with pain together dwelling.

贫穷下劣,困乏常无。无田亦忧欲有田,无宅亦忧欲有宅。无牛马六畜、奴婢钱财、衣食什物,亦忧欲有之。适有一,复少一,有是少是,思有齐等。适欲具有,便复糜散。

[The] poor [and] lowly, [have] difficulties [with that] lacking, often without [them. Those] without fields likewise worry [with] desires [to] have fields. [Those] without residences likewise worry [with] desires [to] have residences. [Those] without cows, horses, [the] six domesticated animals, slave servants, wealth, properties, clothing, food [and] miscellaneous things, likewise worry [with] desires [to] have them. Just having one, again lacking [another] one, having this, lacking that, considering having [that] equal [to] others’. Just [with the] desired possessed, then again [with it] broken [and] lost.

如是忧苦,当复求索。不能时得,思想无益。身心俱劳,坐起不安。忧念相随,勤苦若此,亦结众寒热,与痛共居。或时坐之终身夭命,不肯为善,行道进德。寿终身死,当独远去。有所趣向,善恶之道,莫能知者。

Thus [with] worries [and] suffering, [they] will again seek [them]. Not able [to] often attain [them, with] thinking without benefit. [With] body [and] mind together toiling, [with] sitting [and] standing not peaceful. [With] worried thoughts following one another, [with] utmost suffering like this, likewise forming all colds [and] fevers, with pain together dwelling. Sometimes staying [like] this [to the] end [of their] bodies [with] shortened lives, not willing [to] do good, [and] practise [the] path [to] advance virtues. [When] life ends [and their] bodies die, [they] will alone go far [away]. Having those inclined towards, [of the] paths of good [and] evil, not able [to have] those known.

世间人民,父子兄弟、夫妇家室、中外亲属,当相敬爱,无相憎嫉。有无相通,无得贪惜。言色常和,莫相违戾。

[The] world’s people, fathers, sons, brothers, husbands, wives, families, internal [and] external relatives, should [have] respect [and] love [for] one another, without hatred [and] jealousy [of] one another. [Those] with [and] without [should] connect [with] one another, [and] must not [have] greed [and] miserliness. [With] speech [and] expression constantly harmonious, not going against one another.

或时心诤,有所恚怒。今世恨意,微相憎嫉,后世转剧,至成大怨。所以者何?世间之事,更相患害。虽不即时,应急相破,然含毒畜怒,结愤精神,自然克识,不得相离。皆当对生,更相报复。

Sometimes [with] minds [for] disputes, having those enraged. This life’s resentful thoughts, [with] subtle hatred [and] jealousy [for] one another, [in] future lives transform [in] severity, until [they] become great enmity. Why [is] that so? Of [these] worldly matters, [with] one after another harmed. Although not immediately, [they] should urgently break [this with] one another. However, containing poison [and] storing anger, forming resentment’s essence [in their] minds, naturally recorded [in their] consciousnesses, not attaining departure [from] one another. All will [in] opposition [be] born, [with] one after another retaliating.

人在世间,爱欲之中,独生独死,独去独来。当行至趣苦乐之地,身自当之,无有代者。善恶变化,殃福异处,宿豫严待,当独趣入。远到他所,莫能见者。善恶自然追行所生,窈窈冥冥,别离久长。道路不同,会见无期。甚难甚难,今得相值。何不弃众事,各遇强健时,努力勤修善,精进愿度世?可得极长生,如何不求道?安所须待,欲何乐乎?

Humans in [this] world, [with] love [and] desires within, [are] alone born, alone die, alone go [and] alone come. [They] will move [to] reach lands [with] realms of suffering [and] bliss, [by] themselves personally bearing them, not having those [to] replace [them. With] good [and] evil changing [and] manifesting, [as] misfortunes [and] blessings [at] different places, [where] past [karma] in advance strictly awaits, [they] will alone enter [these] realms. Far [away, having] arrived [at] other places, not able [to have] those seen. [With] good [and] evil naturally pursuing [and] acting where born, dim [and] dusky, hidden in depth and distance, [with] separation [for a] long time. [With] paths not [the] same, meeting [again is] without [a fixed] time. [It is] extremely difficult, extremely difficult, [to] now attain encountering [of] one another. Why not relinquish all matters, [with] each, when encountering strength [and] health, strive [and] persevere [to] cultivate good, [and] diligently aspire [to be] delivered [from this] world? Able [to] attain ultimately long life, how [is it that you are] not seeking [the] path [to reach it]? Where [else is there to] wait for, [with] desire [for] what [other] bliss?

如是世人,不信作善得善,为道得道。不信人死更生,惠施得福。善恶之事,都不信之。谓之不然,终无有是。但坐此故,且自见之。更相瞻视,先后同然。转相承受,父余教令,先人祖父,素不为善,不识道德。身愚神暗,心塞意闭。死生之趣,善恶之道,自不能见,无有语者。吉凶祸福,竞各作之,无一怪也。

Such people [of the] world, [do] not believe [that] doing good attains good, [that] cultivating [the] path attains [the] path. Not believing [that] people [after] death [are] again born, [that] kind giving attains blessings. Of good [and] evil matters, all not believing them. Saying they [are] not thus, [in the] end not having these. Only staying [like] this thus, moreover [with] personal views then. [With] one after another looked [to], ancestors [and] descendants [are] alike thus. [In] turn carrying on in succession [to] receive, [what] fathers [and] others teach [and] enable, [with] ancestral grandfathers, always not doing good, not recognising [the] path’s virtues. [With] bodies ignorant [and] consciousnesses dark, minds blocked [and] thoughts closed. [With the] realms of birth [and] death, [and their] paths of good [and] evil, personally not able [to] see [them, and] not having those speaking [on these to them. For the] auspicious [and] inauspicious, [their] misfortunes [and] blessings, each contending [to] do them, without [any]one [finding this] unusual.

生死常道,转相嗣立。或父哭子,或子哭父。兄弟夫妇,更相哭泣。颠倒上下,无常根本,皆当过去,不可常保。教语开导,信之者少。是以生死流转,无有休止。如此之人,蒙冥抵突,不信经法,心无远虑,各欲快意,痴惑爱欲。不达于道德,迷没于瞋怒,贪狼于财色,坐之不得道。当更恶趣苦,生死无穷已,哀哉甚可伤。

Births’ [and] deaths’ constant path, [is in] turn [with] inheriting [of] one another’s positions. Perhaps [with] fathers crying [for their] sons, perhaps [with] sons crying [for their] fathers. [With] brothers, husbands [and] wives, one after another crying. Inverting [those] above [and] below, [with] impermanence [as] root, all will pass by, [and] cannot [be] permanently retained. [With] teachings spoken [to] inspire [and] guide, those believing them [are] few. Thus, births [and] deaths [in] rebirth [do] not have stopping. Of such people, ignorant, rude [and] impetuous, not believing sūtras’ Dharma, [their] minds [are] without long-term considerations, each desiring pleasures, [with] ignorance, confusions, love [and] desires. Not attaining [the] path’s virtues, confused [and] sunken in anger, [like] wolves greedy for wealth [and] sex, staying [like] this, not attaining [the] path. [As they] will again [have] evil realms’ suffering, [with] births [and] deaths without end, [how] sorrowful [and] extremely pitiable [is this].

或时室家父子、兄弟夫妇,一死一生,更相哀愍。恩爱思慕,忧念结缚,心意痛著,迭相顾恋,穷日卒岁,无有解已。教语道德,心不开明。思想恩好,不离情欲。昏蒙暗塞,愚惑所覆。不能深思熟计,心自端正,专精行道,决断世事。便旋至竟,年寿终尽,不能得道,无可奈何。总猥愦扰,皆贪爱欲。惑道者众,悟之者少。

Sometimes, families’ fathers, sons, brothers, husbands [and] wives, [have] one deceased [and] one alive, [with] one after another sympathising. [With] affectionate love [and] longing, [by] worried thoughts fettered, [and] minds’ thoughts [with] painful attachments, [with] one after another worrying [and] longing, [to the] end [of their] days [and to the] end [of their] years, not having liberation thereafter. [With] teachings spoken [on the] path’s virtues, [their] minds [are] not open [to] understanding. Thinking [about those] affectionate [and] fond [of], not departing [from] lustful desires. [By] dim ignorance’s darkness blocked, [and] foolish confusions those covered. Not able [to] deeply consider [and] carefully plan, [with] minds personally upright, [to] single-mindedly [and] diligently practise [the] path, [and] decisively sever [from] worldly matters. Dithering cyclically until [the] end, [with] years [of their] lifespans ended completely, not able [to] attain [the] path, with no way [to be] helped. [With] all lowly, troubled [and] disturbed, all [are] greedy [with] love [and] desires. [With] those confused [about the] path many, [and] those awakened [to] it few.

世间匆匆,无可聊赖。尊卑上下,贫富贵贱,勤苦匆务,各怀杀毒。恶气窈冥,为妄兴事。违逆天地,不从人心。自然非恶,先随与之,恣听所为,待其罪极,其寿未终尽,便顿夺之。下入恶道,累世勤苦,展转其中,数千亿劫,无有出期。痛不可言,甚可哀愍。」

[In the] world hurrying, without [what] can [be] dependably relied [on. The] honoured [and] lowly, above [and] below, poor [and] rich, noble [and] mean, [with] utmost suffering [and] hurried activities, each conceive killing’s poison. [With] evil airs dim [and] dusky, doing [the] reckless [to] give rise [to] disturbances. Going against [the] heavens [and] earth, not following [the] human heart. Naturally [with those] wrong [and] evil, first according with them, allowing that done, awaiting [for] their transgressions [to become] extreme, [with] their lifespans yet [to] end completely, then suddenly [with] them taken by force. Descending [to] enter evil paths, accumulating lives [of] utmost suffering, passing through many, within them, [for] several thousand koṭis [of] kalpas, not having exit dates. [With] pains unspeakable, [this is] extremely pitiable.’

佛告弥勒菩萨、诸天人等:「我今语汝,世间之事,人用是故,坐不得道。当熟思计,远离众恶。择其善者,勤而行之。爱欲荣华,不可常保。皆当别离,无可乐者。遇佛在世,当勤精进。其有至愿生安乐国者,可得智慧明达,功德殊胜。勿得随心所欲,亏负经戒,在人后也。倘有疑意,不解经者,可具问佛,当为说之。」

[The] Buddha told Maitreya Bodhisattva, [all] heavenly, human [beings and] others, ‘I [am] now speaking [to] you, [that] of worldly matters, humans, because of these thus, stay unable [to] attain [the] path. [You] should carefully consider [and] plan, [to] far depart [from] all evils. Those [who] choose that [which is] good, [should] then diligently practise it. Love [and] desires, glory [and] splendour, cannot [be] permanently retained. All will [be] separated [from], without that [which] can [be] joyous [of. Having] encountered [the] Buddha in [this] world, [you] should persevere diligently. There are those [with] sincere aspiration [for] birth [in the] Land [Of] Peace [And] Bliss, [who] can attain wisdom [with] understanding thorough, [and] meritorious virtues especially excellent. [Do] not allow [yourself to] accord [with your] wishes as desired, [to be] lacking [and] let down [this] sūtra [and the] precepts, to [fall] behind others too. If having doubtful thoughts, those not understanding [this] sūtra, [you] can all ask [the] Buddha, [as I] will for [you] explain [on] them.’

弥勒菩萨长跪白言:「佛威神尊重,所说快善。听佛经语,贯心思之,世人实尔,如佛所言。今佛慈愍,显示大道,耳目开明,长得度脱。闻佛所说,莫不欢喜。诸天人民蠕动之类,皆蒙慈恩,解脱忧苦。佛语教诫,甚深甚善。智慧明见八方上下去来今事,莫不究畅。

Maitreya Bodhisattva long knelt [and] said, ‘[The] Buddha’s majestic glory [is] honoured, [with] that said [for] happiness [and] good. Listening [to the] Buddha’s sūtra’s words, [which] penetrate [the] mind, [and] considering them, [the] world’s people [are] truly thus, like those [the] Buddha said. Now, [with the] Buddha’s loving-kindness [and] sympathy, clearly expressing [the] great path, [our] ears [and] eyes [are] open [to] understanding, [to] constantly [be able to] attain deliverance [and] liberation. Hearing that [the] Buddha said, none [are] not joyful. [From] all heavenly [and] human people, [to] kinds of wriggling [beings], all receive [his] loving-kindness, [to be] liberated [from] worries [and] suffering. [The] Buddha’s spoken teachings [and] admonishments, [are] extremely profound [and] extremely good. [His] wisdom clearly sees [the] eight directions, [the] above [and] below, past, future [and] present matters, [with] none not thoroughly understood [and] fluently expressed.

今我众等,所以蒙得度脱,皆佛前世求道之时,谦苦所致。恩德普覆,福禄巍巍。光明彻照,达空无极,开入泥洹。教授典揽,威制消化。感动十方,无穷无极。佛为法王,尊超众圣,普为一切天人之师,随心所愿,皆令得道。今得值佛,复闻无量寿声,靡不欢喜,心得开明。」

Now, we [in this] assembly [and] others, therefore receiving attainment [of] deliverance [and] liberation, [this is] all [with] when [the] Buddha [was in his] past lives, [with his] seeking of [the] path, caused by [his] humility [and] hardship. [With] kindness’ virtue universally covering, blessings [and] prosperity imposing. [With] bright light pervasively illuminating, thoroughly understanding emptiness without limit, teaching entering [of] Nirvāṇa. Instructing [the] scriptures’ essentials, [with] majesty subduing, eradicating [and] transforming. Moving [the] ten directions, without end [and] without limit. [The] Buddha as [the] Dharma King, [has] honour surpassing all sages, universally as [the] teacher of all heavenly [and] human [beings, who] according [to their] wishes as aspired, [are] all enabled [to] attain [the] path. Now attaining encountering [of the] Buddha, again hearing Immeasurable Life [Buddha’s name’s] sound, none [are] not joyful, [with] minds attaining opening [to] understanding.’

佛告弥勒:「汝言是也。若有慈敬于佛者,实为大善。天下久久,乃复有佛。今我于此世作佛,演说经法,宣布道教,断诸疑网。拔爱欲之本,杜众恶之源。游步三界,无所挂碍。典揽智慧,众道之要。执持纲维,昭然分明。开示五趣,度未度者,决正生死泥洹之道。

[The] Buddha told Maitreya, ‘[What] you [have] said is [so]. If [there] are those [with] loving-kindness [and] reverence of [the] Buddha, [they are] truly doing great good. Under [the] heavens, [in a] very long time, [will] then again have [a] Buddha. Now, I in this world [have] become [a] Buddha, [to] expound sūtras’ Dharma, [to] proclaim [the] path’s teachings, [and] sever all doubts’ net. Uprooting roots of love [and] desires, ending [the] source of all evils. Travelling [in the] three realms, without that clung [to and] obstructed. [With] scriptures’ grasped wisdom, [the] essentials of all paths. Firmly upholding [their] guiding principles, revealing [them] obviously, distinctly [and] clearly. Teaching [on the] five realms, delivering those yet [to be] delivered, decisively [with the] right path, [from] birth [and] death, to go [to] Nirvāṇa.

弥勒当知,汝从无数劫来,修菩萨行,欲度众生,其已久远。从汝得道,至于泥洹,不可称数。汝及十方诸天人民一切四众,永劫已来,展转五道,忧畏勤苦,不可具言。乃至今世,生死不绝,与佛相值,听受经法,又复得闻无量寿佛,快哉甚善,吾助尔喜!

Maitreya, [you] should know, [that] you from innumerable kalpas since, [have] cultivated Bodhisattva practices, desiring [to] deliver sentient beings, [with] this already [for a] long [and] distant [time. Those] from you attaining [the] path, [for] reaching of Nirvāṇa, cannot [be] stated [in] number. You and [the] ten directions’ all heavenly [and] human people’s all four assemblies, [from] distant kalpas since, [have] passed through many [of the] five paths, [with] worries, fears [and] utmost suffering, [that] cannot [be] completely spoken [of]. Then reaching this life, [with] births [and] deaths not ending, with [the] Buddha, encountering one another, listening [to] receive [the] sūtras’ Dharma, once again attaining hearing [about] Immeasurable Life Buddha, [how] happy [and] extremely good [this is, with] myself supporting this joy!

汝今亦可自厌生死老病痛苦,恶露不净,无可乐者。宜自决断,端身正行,益作诸善。修己洁净,洗除心垢。言行忠信,表里相应。人能自度,转相拯济,精明求愿,积累善本。虽一世勤苦,须臾之间。后生无量寿国,快乐无极。长与道德合明,永拔生死根本。无复贪恚愚痴苦恼之患,欲寿一劫、百劫、千亿万劫,自在随意,皆可得之。无为自然,次于泥洹之道。汝等宜各精进,求心所愿。无得疑惑中悔,自为过咎,生彼边地七宝宫殿,五百岁中受诸厄也。」

You now likewise can personally loathe [the] pain [and] suffering [of] birth, death, ageing, sickness, [and their] foul fluids [that are] not pure, without that [which] can [be] joyous [of. You] should personally decisively sever [from them, with] upright bodies [and] right practice, increase doing [of] all good. Cultivating personal purity, washing [to] eradicate [the] mind’s defilements. [With] speech [and] actions loyal [and] trustworthy, [with the] outwards [and] inwards corresponding. People able [to be] self-delivered, [can in] turn save [and] aid one another, sincerely [and] confidently seek [their] aspirations, [to] accumulate [and] amass good roots. Although [with] one lifetime [of] utmost suffering, [it is just] a moment in between. Later born [in] Immeasurable Life [Buddha’s] Land, [it is with] happiness [and] bliss without limit. Constantly with [the] path’s virtues merged [in] brightness, forever uprooting births’ [and] deaths’ roots. Without again [with] suffering of afflictions [from] greed, anger [and] ignorance, desiring lifespan [of] one kalpa, [one] hundred kalpas, [or one] thousand koṭis [of] ten thousand kalpas, [with] ease accordingly [as] wished, all can attain them. Unconditioned [and] natural, second only to [the] path of Nirvāṇa. You [and] others should each [be] diligent, [in] seeking that [your] minds aspire. [You] must not [with] doubts [and] confusions within [have] regrets, [that] naturally become faults, [to be] born [in] that borderland’s palace halls [of] seven treasures, [for] five hundred years within receiving many adversities.’

弥勒白言:「受佛重诲,专精修学,如教奉行,不敢有疑。」

Maitreya [to the Buddha] said, ‘[Having] accepted [the] Buddha’s earnest instructions, [I will] single-mindedly [and] diligently cultivate [and] learn [them, with] as taught practising, not daring [to] have doubt.’

佛告弥勒:「汝等能于此世,端心正意,不作众恶,甚为至德。十方世界,最无伦匹。所以者何?诸佛国土,天人之类,自然作善,不大为恶,易可开化。今我于此世间作佛,处于五恶五痛五烧之中,为最剧苦,教化群生,令捨五恶、令去五痛、令离五烧,降化其意,令持五善,获其福德度世长寿泥洹之道。」

[The] Buddha told Maitreya, ‘You [and] others [who are] able [to], in this world, [have] upright minds [and] right thoughts, [to] not do all evils, [are] with [the] very utmost virtues. [In the] ten directions’ worlds, [you are] superior [and] without peers comparable. Why [is] that so? [In] all Buddha lands, [their] kinds of heavenly [and] human [beings] naturally do good, [are] not [with] great doing [of] evil, [and] can easily [be] inspired [and] transformed. Now, I in this world became [a] Buddha, [to] dwell in [its] Five Evils, Five Pains [and] Five Burnings within, [which] is [with the] most severe suffering, [to] teach [and] transform all sentient beings, [to] enable renouncing [of the] Five Evils, enable eliminating [of the] Five Pains, enable departing [from the] Five Burnings, [to] subdue [and] transform their minds, enable upholding [of the] Five Goodnesses, [to] obtain their blessed virtues, [to be] delivered [from the] world, [with the] path of long life [for] Nirvāṇa.’

佛言:「何等五恶、何等五痛、何等五烧、何等消化五恶,令持五善,获其福德度世长寿泥洹之道?

[The] Buddha said, ‘What [are the] Five Evils? What [are the] Five Pains? What [are the] Five Burnings? How [to] eradicate [and] transform [the] Five Evils, [to] enable upholding [of the] Five Goodnesses, [to] obtain their blessed virtues, [to be] delivered [from the] world, [with the] path of long life [for] Nirvāṇa?

【一大恶与一大善】
[First Great Evil And First Great Goodness]

其一恶者,诸天人民蠕动之类,欲为众恶,莫不皆然。强者伏弱,转相克贼。残害杀戮,迭相吞噬。不知修善,恶逆无道。

Those [with] that First Evil, [are from] all heavenly [and] human people, [to] kinds of wriggling [beings, who] desire [to] do all evils, [with] none [of] all not thus. Those stronger subdue [the] weaker, [in] turn harming one another. Injuring [and] slaughtering, [with] one after another swallowed. Not knowing [how to] cultivate good, [with] evil contradicting [and] without [the] path.

后受殃罚,自然趣向。神明记识,犯者不赦。故有贫穷下贱、乞丐孤独、聋盲喑哑、愚痴弊恶,至有尪狂不逮之属。又有尊贵豪富、高才明达,皆由宿世慈孝,修善积德所致。

Later receiving misfortunes [and] punishment, [as] naturally inclined towards. [With] gods recording [and in their] consciousness, these violators [are] not pardoned. Thus having [the] poor, lowly, beggars, orphans, lonely, deaf, blind, mute, ignorant [and] repulsive, even having [those] belonging [to the] feeble, insane [and those] not equal [to others]. Moreover, [those] having honour, power, wealth, high talents [and] understanding thorough, [are] all due to past lives’ loving-kindness [and] filial piety, caused by cultivating good [and] accumulating virtues.

世有常道,王法牢狱,不肯畏慎,为恶入罪,受其殃罚,求望解脱,难得勉出。世间有此目前现事,寿终后世,尤深尤剧。入其幽冥,转生受身。譬如王法,痛苦极刑。

[The] world has [the] constant path, [with] kings’ laws [and] prisons, [with those] not willing [to be] reverent [and] cautious, doing evil [and] incriminating [themselves, to] receive their misfortunes [and] punishment. Appealing [and] hoping [for] liberation, [with] difficulty [of] attaining exemption [for] exit. [The] world has these present matters before [our] eyes, [and when] life ends, [in] future lives, [they become] more profound [and] more severe. [They] enter those dark [worlds, with] rebirth [to] receive bodies. For example, [by] kings’ laws, [having] pain [and] suffering [with] extreme punishment.

故有自然三塗,无量苦恼。 转贸其身,改形易道。所受寿命,或长或短。魂神精识,自然趣之。当独值向,相从共生。更相报复,无有止已。殃恶未尽,不得相离。展转其中,无有出期,难得解脱,痛不可言。天地之间,自然有是,虽不即时卒暴应至,善恶之道,会当归之。是为一大恶一痛一烧,勤苦如是。

Thus, naturally having [the] three paths, [with] immeasurable suffering [and] afflictions. [In] turn trading their bodies, altering forms [and] changing paths. Those received lifespans, [are] perhaps longer, perhaps shorter. [Their] spiritual consciousnesses, [with their] natural inclinations go [there. They] will alone take turns [to go] towards [them], accompanying one another, [to be] together born. [With] one after another retaliating, not having resting [and] ending. [With] misfortunes [and] evils yet [to] end, not attaining departure [from] one another. Passing through many [paths], within them, not having exit dates, difficult [to] attain liberation, [with] pains unspeakable. [The] heavens [and] earth between naturally has these. Although not immediately, abruptly [and] violently [with] responses arriving, [the] paths of good [and] evil, will definitely return [to] them. [With] this as [the] First Great Evil, First Pain [and] First Burning, [with] utmost suffering thus.

譬如大火焚烧人身,人能于中一心制意,端身正行,独作诸善,不为众恶者,身独度脱,获其福德度世上天泥洹之道,是为一大善也。」

For example, like [a] great fire burning people’s bodies, [if] people [are] those able [to] within wholeheartedly control [their] minds, [with] upright bodies [and] right practices, only do all good, [and] not do all evils, [their] bodies alone [will be] delivered [and] liberated, [to] obtain their blessed virtues, [to be] delivered [from the] world, [with the] paths of ascent [to the] heavens [and to] Nirvāṇa, [with] this as [the] First Great Goodness.’

【二大恶与二大善】
[Second Great Evil And Second Great Goodness]

佛言:「其二恶者,世间人民,父子兄弟、室家夫妇,都无义理,不顺法度。奢淫憍纵,各欲快意。任心自恣,更相欺惑。心口各异,言念无实。佞谄不忠,巧言谀媚。

[The] Buddha said, ‘Those [with] that Second Evil, [are the] world’s people, fathers, sons, brothers, families’ husbands [and] wives, [who are] all without moral principles, not following law systems. Extravagant, licentious, arrogant [and] indulgent, each desiring pleasures. Allowing their minds [to] personally [be] unrestrained, [with] one after another cheating [and] confusing. [With the] mind [and] mouth each different, words [and] thoughts without truth. Hypocritically cajoling without loyalty, [with] pleasant [but] unrealistic words flattering [and] ingratiating.

嫉贤谤善,陷入怨枉。主上不明,任用臣下。臣下自在,机伪多端。践度能行,知其形势。在位不正,为其所欺。妄损忠良,不当天心。臣欺其君,子欺其父。

Jealous [of the] virtuous, slandering [the] good, [to] fall into unjust treatment. [With] lords above not wise, trusting [and] appointing officials below. Officials below [with] ease, [are] deceitful [and] hypocritical [with] many varied [ruses]. Carrying out [with] calculating [of what] able [to be] done, [with] knowledge [of] their circumstances. [Those] in positions [are] not upright, by them those cheated. Recklessly harming [the] loyal [and] kind-hearted, not conforming [with their] natural conscience. Officials cheat their lords, [and] sons cheat their fathers.

兄弟夫妇,中外知识,更相欺诳。各怀贪欲瞋恚愚痴。欲自厚己,欲贪多有。尊卑上下,心俱同然。破家亡身,不顾前后。亲属内外,坐之灭族。

Brothers, husbands [and] wives, internal [and] external known [ones, are with] one after another cheating [and] confusing. Each conceiving greedy desires, anger [and] ignorance. Desiring [to] personally favour oneself, [with] desires greedy [to] have more. [The] honoured [and] lowly, above [and] below, [have] minds together alike thus. Destroying families [and] losing lives, not regarding before [and] after. Relatives inside [and] outside, [are] convicted [to have] extermination of [their] clans.

或时室家知识、乡党市里、愚民野人,转共从事。更相利害,忿成怨结。富有悭惜,不肯施与。爱保贪重,心劳身苦。

Sometimes, families, known [ones], fellow villagers, townsfolk, ignorant people [and] savage people, [in] turn together undertake matters. [With] one after another [for] benefits harming, [with] resentment becoming enmity’s fetter. [The] rich [are] miserly [with] attachments, not willing [to] give [to] help. [For the] attached protecting [with] greed heavy, [with] minds weary [and] bodies suffering.

如是至竟,无所恃怙。独来独去,无一随者。善恶祸福,追命所生。或在乐处,或入苦毒,然后乃悔,当复何及?

Thus until [the] end, without that [to] rely on. Alone coming [and] alone going, without anyone that follows. [With] good [and] evil, misfortunes [and] blessings, pursuing [in] life where born. Perhaps at joyful places, perhaps entering suffering [and] pain, afterwards then regretting, how will [this] again, [be] in time?

世间人民,心愚少智。见善憎谤,不思慕及。但欲为恶,妄作非法。常怀盗心,悕望他利。消散磨尽,而复求索。邪心不正,惧人有色。不预思计,事至乃悔。

[The] world’s people, [have] minds ignorant [with] little wisdom. Seeing [the] good, hating [and] slandering, not considering [with] respect [to be] equal. Only desiring [to] do evil, recklessly doing [the] illegal. Constantly conceiving stealing’s mind, wishing [for] others’ benefits. [When] dissipated, scattered [and] obliterated completely, yet again seeking [them. With] evil minds not upright, afraid [of] people, having sight [of them]. Not in advance contemplating [and] planning, [with] matters arrived then regretting.

今世现有王法牢狱,随罪趣向,受其殃罚。

[With] this life’s presently existing kings’ laws [and] prisons, according [to their] crimes inclined towards, receiving their misfortunes [and] punishment.

因其前世不信道德,不修善本。今复为恶,天神克识,别其名籍。寿终神逝,下入恶道。

Because [in] their past lives not believing [in the] path’s virtues, not cultivating good roots. Now again doing evil, naturally [by] gods recorded [and in their] consciousness, furthermore [with] their names registered. [At] life’s end, [when their] consciousnesses depart, [they] descend [to] enter evil paths.

故有自然三塗,无量苦恼。展转其中,世世累劫,无有出期,难得解脱,痛不可言。是为二大恶二痛二烧,勤苦如是。

Thus having naturally [the] three paths, [with] immeasurable suffering [and] afflictions. Passing through many [paths], within them, life after life [for] continuous kalpas, not having exit dates, difficult [to] attain liberation, [with] pains unspeakable. [With] this as [the] Second Great Evil, Second Pain [and] Second Burning, [with] utmost suffering thus.

譬如大火焚烧人身,人能于中一心制意,端身正行,独作诸善,不为众恶者,身独度脱,获其福德度世上天泥洹之道,是为二大善也。」

For example, like [a] great fire burning people’s bodies, [if] people [are] those able [to] within wholeheartedly control [their] minds, [with] upright bodies [and] right practices, only do all good, [and] not do all evils, [their] bodies alone [will be] delivered [and] liberated, [to] obtain their blessed virtues, [to be] delivered [from the] world, [with the] paths of ascent [to the] heavens [and to] Nirvāṇa, [with] this as [the] Second Great Goodness.’

【三大恶与三大善】
[Third Great Evil And Third Great Goodness]

佛言:「其三恶者,世间人民,相因寄生,共居天地之间。处年寿命,无能几何。上有贤明长者尊贵豪富,下有贫穷厮贱尪劣愚夫,中有不善之人,常怀邪恶。但念淫泆,烦满胸中。爱欲交乱,坐起不安。贪意守惜,但欲唐得。眄睐细色,邪态外逸。

[The] Buddha said, ‘Those [with] that Third Evil, [are the] world’s people, [who are with] one another [as the] cause, [as] relied on [to be] born, together dwelling between [the] heavens [and] earth. [With] living years [of] lifespans, not able [to have] much. Above having capable [and] wise elders, [those] honourable, powerful [and] wealthy, below having [those] poor, lowly, feeble [and] ignorant, [in the] middle having people of non-virtue, [who] constantly conceive evil. Only mindful [of] licentiousness, [with] afflictions filling [their] breasts within. [By] love [and] desires simultaneously confused, [with] sitting [and] standing not peaceful. [With] greedy minds guarding miserly, only desiring [to with] nothing attain. Ogling [and] glancing at delicate forms, [with] evil manners outwardly uninhibited.

自妻厌憎,私妄出入。费损家财,事为非法。交结聚会,兴师相伐。攻劫杀戮,强夺无道。恶心在外,不自修业。盗窃趣得,欲击成事。恐势迫脋,归给妻子。恣心快意,极身作乐。或于亲属,不避尊卑。家室中外,患而苦之。亦复不畏王法禁令。

[With their] own wives loathed, secretly [and] recklessly going out [and coming] in. Wasting [and] exhausting family wealth, [with] matters done illegally. With [those] associated gathering, sending troops, [with] one another cut down. Assaulting, robbing, slaughtering [and] forcibly seizing without [the] path. [With] evil minds [on the] external, not personally cultivating livelihoods. Stealing [to] take [and] attain, [for that] desired attacking [to] accomplish matters. [With that using] fear [and] power coerced, returning [to] give [them to their] wives. Indulging [their] minds [in] pleasures, [to the] extreme [with their] bodies making merry. Perhaps with relatives, not avoiding [the] honoured [and] lowly. Families’ internal [and] external, [are with] worrying and suffering then. Likewise not fearing kings’ laws [and] prohibitions.

如是之恶,著于人鬼。日月照见,神明记识。

Of such evils, [they are] revealed to humans [and] ghosts. [With the] sun [and] moon illuminated [and] seen, [with] gods recording [and in their] consciousness.

故有自然三塗,无量苦恼。展转其中,世世累劫,无有出期,难得解脱,痛不可言。是为三大恶三痛三烧,勤苦如是。

Thus having naturally [the] three paths, [with] immeasurable suffering [and] afflictions. Passing through many [paths], within them, life after life [for] continuous kalpas, not having exit dates, difficult [to] attain liberation, [with] pains unspeakable. [With] this as [the] Third Great Evil, Third Pain [and] Third Burning, [with] utmost suffering thus.

譬如大火焚烧人身,人能于中一心制意,端身正行,独作诸善,不为众恶者,身独度脱,获其福德度世上天泥洹之道,是为三大善也。」

For example, like [a] great fire burning people’s bodies, [if] people [are] those able [to] within wholeheartedly control [their] minds, [with] upright bodies [and] right practices, only do all good, [and] not do all evils, [their] bodies alone [will be] delivered [and] liberated, [to] obtain their blessed virtues, [to be] delivered [from the] world, [with the] paths of ascent [to the] heavens [and to] Nirvāṇa, [with] this as [the] Third Great Goodness.’

【四大恶与四大善】
[Fourth Great Evil And Fourth Great Goodness]

佛言:「其四恶者,世间人民,不念修善。转相教令,共为众恶。两舌恶口、妄言绮语。谗贼斗乱、憎嫉善人。败坏贤明,于傍快喜。不孝二亲,轻慢师长。朋友无信,难得诚实。尊贵自大,谓己有道。横行威势,侵易于人。不能自知,为恶无耻。自以强健,欲人敬难。

[The] Buddha said, ‘Those [with] that Fourth Evil, [are the] world’s people, [who are] not mindful [of] cultivating good. [In] turn teaching [and] enabling one another, together doing all evils. [With] double-tongued [speech], abusive speech, false speech [and] frivolous speech. [With] slander harming, contending chaotically, hatefully jealous [of] good people. Ruining [the] capable [and] wise, by [the] side happy [and] joyful. Not filial [to their] two parents, slighting [their] teachers [and] seniors. [With] friends without trust, difficult [to] attain [the] truthful. [The] “honourable” [and] arrogant, say they have [the] path. Running rampant [with] power [and] influence, [with] violating [and] slighting of people. Not able [to] know themselves, doing evil without shame. Regarding themselves [as] strong [and] sturdy, desiring people’s respect [with] difficulty.

不畏天地神明日月,不肯作善,难可降化。自用偃蹇,谓可常尔。无所忧惧,常怀憍慢。如是众恶,天神记识。赖其前世颇作福德,小善扶接,营护助之。今世为恶,福德尽灭。诸善鬼神,各去离之。身独空立,无所复依。寿命终尽,诸恶所归。自然迫促,共趣夺之。又其名籍,记在神明。殃咎牵引,当往趣向。

Not fearing [the] heavens [and] earth, gods, sun [and] moon, not willing [to] do good, difficult [to be] subdued [and] transformed. Obstinate [and] arrogant, saying [they] can [be] constantly thus. Without that worried [and] apprehensive [of], constantly conceiving arrogance. [Of] such all evils, naturally [by] gods recorded [and in their] consciousness. Depending [on] their past lives’ slight created blessed virtues, [with] little good supporting [and] assisting, rescuing, protecting [and] helping them. [In] this life doing evil, blessed virtues [are] completely eliminated. All good ghosts [and] gods, [will] each go away [from] them. [With their] bodies alone, empty [and] isolated, without that [to] again rely [on. When their] lifespans end completely, [with] all evils [that] return [to them]. Naturally compelled [and] urged, together [to] their realms, taken by force. Moreover, [with] their names registered, [as] recorded [by the] gods. [To] misfortunes [and] punishment led, [they] will [be] reborn [where they are] inclined towards.

罪报自然,无从捨离。但得前行,入于火镬。身心摧碎,精神痛苦。当斯之时,悔复何及?天道冏然,不得蹉跌。

[With] transgressions’ retribution natural, without way [to] depart [from it]. Only having to go forward, [to] enter in flaming cauldrons. [With] bodies [and] minds destroyed [and] broken, [their] consciousnesses [with] pain [and] suffering. When [at] this moment, [with] regret again, how [will this be] in time? [As the] heavenly path [is] bright [and] just, [it] cannot [be with] slips [and] falls.

故有自然三塗,无量苦恼。展转其中,世世累劫,无有出期,难得解脱,痛不可言。是为四大恶四痛四烧,勤苦如是。

Thus having naturally [the] three paths, [with] immeasurable suffering [and] afflictions. Passing through many [paths], within them, life after life [for] continuous kalpas, not having exit dates, difficult [to] attain liberation, [with] pains unspeakable. [With] this as [the] Fourth Great Evil, Fourth Pain [and] Fourth Burning, [with] utmost suffering thus.

譬如大火焚烧人身,人能于中一心制意,端身正行,独作诸善,不为众恶,身独度脱,获其福德度世上天泥洹之道,是为四大善也。」

For example, like [a] great fire burning people’s bodies, [if] people [are] those able [to] within wholeheartedly control [their] minds, [with] upright bodies [and] right practices, only do all good, [and] not do all evils, [their] bodies alone [will be] delivered [and] liberated, [to] obtain their blessed virtues, [to be] delivered [from the] world, [with the] paths of ascent [to the] heavens [and to] Nirvāṇa, [with] this as [the] Fourth Great Goodness.’

【五大恶与五大善】
[Fifth Great Evil And Fifth Great Goodness]

佛言:「其五恶者,世间人民,徙倚懈惰,不肯作善,治身修业。家室眷属,饥寒困苦。父母教诲,瞋目怒应。言令不和,违戾反逆。譬如怨家,不如无子。取与无节,众共患厌。负恩违义,无有报偿之心。贫穷困乏,不能复得。

[The] Buddha said, ‘Those [with] that Fifth Evil, [are the] world’s people, [who are] dithering [and] slack, not willing [to] do good, control [their] bodies [and] cultivate livelihoods. [With] family members hungry [and] cold, [with] difficulties suffering. [Towards their] fathers [and] mothers teaching [and] instructing, [with] glaring eyes angrily responding. [With their] words [and] orders not harmonious, going against, opposing [and] contradicting [them]. For example, like enemies, not as good as [being] without [such] children. [With] taking [and] giving without control, [with] all together suffering loathing [them]. Betraying kindness [and] violating righteousness, not having [the] mind of repayment. Poor [with] difficulties [of that] lacking, not able [to] again attain [them].

辜较纵夺,放恣游散。串数唐得,用自赈给。耽酒嗜美,饮食无度。肆心荡逸,鲁扈抵突。不识人情,强欲抑制。见人有善,妒嫉恶之。无义无礼,无所顾难。自用识当,不可谏晓。六亲眷属,所资有无,不能忧念。不惟父母之恩,不存师友之义。心常念恶,口常言恶,身常行恶,曾无一善。

Plundering [and] amassing, freely taking by force, arrogantly indulgent [and] idle. Habitually [and] repeatedly, using [that with] nothing attained, [for] oneself aiding [and] giving. Indulging [in] wine [and] fond [of] beauty, drinking [and] eating without limit. [With] unrestrained minds indulging, dull-witted [and] domineering, rude [and] impetuous. Not recognising human feelings, [with] strong desires [to] suppress [them]. Seeing people having good, jealously loathing them. Without righteousness [and] without propriety, without any misgivings [and] difficulties. Obstinate [with their] knowledge [as] right, [they] cannot [be] admonished [to] know. [Of their] six relations’ family members, [being] with [or] without their resources, not able [to have] worried thoughts. Not contemplating kindness of fathers [and] mothers, not retaining righteousness [of] teachers [and] friends. [With] minds constantly mindful [of] evil, mouths constantly speaking [of] evil, [and] bodies constantly doing evil, formerly without once good.

不信先圣诸佛经法,不信行道可得度世,不信死后神明更生。不信作善得善,为恶得恶。欲杀真人,斗乱众僧。欲害父母兄弟眷属。六亲憎恶,愿令其死。如是世人,心意俱然。愚痴蒙昧,而自以智慧。不知生所从来,死所趣向。不仁不顺,恶逆天地。而于其中,悕望侥幸。欲求长生,会当归死。慈心教诲,令其念善。开示生死善恶之趣,自然有是,而不肯信之。苦心与语,无益其人。心中闭塞,意不开解。

Not believing [in] ancient sages [and] all Buddhas’ sūtras’ Dharma, not believing practising [the] path can attain deliverance [from the] world, [and] not believing [that] after death, [their] consciousnesses [are] again born. Not believing [that] doing good attains good, [and that] doing evil attains evil. Desiring [to] kill people [who have realised the] truth, contending chaotically [with] all [in the] Saṃgha. Desiring [to] harm [their] fathers, mothers, brothers [and] family members. [With their] six relatives loathed, wishing [to] enable their deaths. Such people [of the] world, [are with their] minds’ thoughts together thus. [With] ignorance obscured, yet regarding themselves [as] wise. Not knowing [with] birth from where coming, [and with] death [to] where inclined towards. Not benevolent [and] not filial, [with] evil contradicting [the] heavens [and] earth. Yet of those within, hoping [to be] lucky. Desiring [to] seek long lives, [they] will definitely return [to] death. [Those with] loving-kindness’ mind teach [and] instruct, [to] enable them [to be] mindful [of] good. [With] teachings [on] births’ [and] deaths’ realms of good [and] evil, naturally having these, yet [they are] not willing [to] believe this. [Those] painstakingly given words, [are] without benefit [to] these persons. [With] minds within closed [and] blocked, [their] thoughts [are] not open [to] understanding.

大命将终,悔惧交至。不预修善,临穷方悔,悔之于后,将何及乎?天地之间,五道分明。恢廓窈冥,浩浩茫茫。善恶报应,祸福相承。身自当之,无谁代者。数之自然,应期所行。殃咎追命,无得从捨。善人行善,从乐入乐,从明入明。恶人行恶,从苦入苦,从冥入冥。谁能知者?独佛知耳。教语开示,信用者少。生死不休,恶道不绝。如是世人,难可具尽。

[With] lifespan going to end, regrets [and] fear simultaneously arrive. Not in advance cultivating good, [when] facing [the] end then regretting, regretting this when later, how [is this] going to [be] in time? Between [the] heavens [and] earth, [the] five paths [are] distinct [and] clear. Extensive [and] hidden in depth and distance, vast [and] boundless. [With] good [and] evil, repaying [and] responding, [with] misfortunes [and] blessings, carrying on in succession. [With] themselves personally bearing them, without those whosoever [to] replace [them. With] principles of nature, responding [in] time [with] that practised. [With] misfortunes [and] punishment pursuing [in] life, without way [to] abandon [them]. Good persons practising good, from bliss enter bliss, from brightness enter brightness. Evil persons practising evil, from suffering enter suffering, from darkness enter darkness. Who [is] able [to] know that? Only [the] Buddhas know. [With] teachings spoken [to] teach, those believing [and] using [them are] few. [With] births [and] deaths not resting, [and the] evil paths not ending. Such people [of the] world, [are] difficult to [be] stated completely.

故有自然三塗,无量苦恼。展转其中,世世累劫,无有出期,难得解脱,痛不可言。是为五大恶五痛五烧,勤苦如是。

Thus having naturally [the] three paths, [with] immeasurable suffering [and] afflictions. Passing through many [paths], within them, life after life [for] continuous kalpas, not having exit dates, difficult [to] attain liberation, [with] pains unspeakable. [With] this as [the] Fifth Great Evil, Fifth Pain [and] Fifth Burning, [with] utmost suffering thus.

譬如大火焚烧人身,人能于中一心制意,端身正念,言行相副,所作至诚,所语如语,心口不转,独作诸善,不为众恶,身独度脱,获其福德度世上天泥洹之道,是为五大善也。」

For example, like [a] great fire burning people’s bodies, [if] people [are] those able [to] within wholeheartedly control [their] minds, [with] upright bodies [and] right thoughts, [with] speech [and] actions corresponding [with] one another, [with] that done [with] utmost sincerity, that said [with] thusness’ speech, [with the] mind [and] mouth not turned [away from each other], only do all good, [and] not do all evils, [their] bodies alone [will be] delivered [and] liberated, [to] obtain their blessed virtues, [to be] delivered [from the] world, [with the] paths of ascent [to the] heavens [and to] Nirvāṇa, [with] this as [the] Fifth Great Goodness.’

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