Biographies

Biography Of The Chinese Pure Land Tradition Great Master Daochuo 中国净土宗道绰大师传

出家法名:释道绰(大师)
地位:高僧
俗名:卫(姓)
出生地:文水(约今山西文水、交成县一带)
出生年:562
往生年:645
代表作品:《安乐集》两卷

Monastic Dharma Name: Shi Daochuo (Great Master)
Status: Great monastic master
Family Name: Wei (Surname)
Place Of Birth: Present day Shanxi Wenshui, Jiaocheng County
Year Of Birth: 562
Year Of Rebirth: 645
Best Known Work: Collection On Peace And Bliss

道绰大师生于北齐武帝河清元年(562年),并州文水(约今山西文水、交成县一带)的卫姓人家。大师十四岁时舍俗出家,正是涅槃佛性学十分盛行之时。大师曾先后开讲《大涅槃经》二十四遍。后来前往太原蒙山开化寺,在禅门耆宿慧瓒禅师(536–607)座下,取得很深的造诣。

Great Master Daochuo was born in the Northern Qi Dynasty, during the first year of Emperor Wu’s rule (562 C.E.), at Bing Province’s Wenshui (now Shanxi Wenshui, Jiaocheng County), in a Wei family. The Great Master, at the age of 14, renounced the worldly to become a monastic, which was when studies on the Mahaparinirvana Sutra and Buddha-nature was very popular. The Great Master thus taught the Mahaparinirvana Sutra 24 times. Later, he went to Taiyuan Mengshan’s Kaihua Monastery, where under the guidance of the senior and venerated Chan Master Huizan’s (536-607), he attained profound accomplishments.

隋大业五年(609年),四十八岁的大师到石壁玄中寺参学。把寺内详细记述了昙鸾大师修学净土法门的过程及往生时的种种瑞应的石碑读完后,深所感动,于是下定决心,宣讲和一心专修持净土法门。

In the Sui Dynasty’s Daye’s 5th year (609 C.E.), the 48-year-old Great Master went to Shibi Xuanzhong Monastery to further his learning. After reading the detailed descriptive records of Great Master Tanluan’s process of cultivating and learning the Pure Land Dharma door, and the various auspicious signs when he was reborn, Great Master Daochuo was deeply moved, thus becoming determined, to preach and wholeheartedly focus on practice of the Pure Land Dharma door.

从此大师潜心于弥陀净土诸经的研习。至唐贞观年间,大师己成为名震十方的一代高僧, 甚至在玄中寺开讲《观无量寿经》达二百余遍,直至圆寂。

Since then, the Great Master concentrated single-mindedly on research and study of all sutras on Amitabha Buddha’s Pure Land. Reaching the Tang Dynasty’s Zhenguan years, the Great Master was already accomplished as an eminent monk of his generation, whose fame spread in the ten directions, even having, at Xuanzhong Monastery, lectured on the Sutra On Contemplation Of Immeasurable Life for more than two hundred times, until his passing.

大师辩才无碍,佛学各宗教义精通,讲解精彩纷呈,比喻恰当,方式灵活,闻者百听不厌。即使有不信者,对大师和净土法门欲加责难,一睹大师风采或听他讲解净土义理后,无不心悦诚服,改容归向。

The Great Master’s eloquence was without obstacles, being proficient in various Buddhist traditions’ teachings, and able to explain them with brilliant and varied presentations. Using appropriate analogies, his teaching methods were flexible and lively, such that listeners never got tired of listening to him. Even if there were non-believers who came to find fault with the Great Master and the Pure Land Dharma door, once seeing the Great Master’s graceful bearing or hearing him explain the Pure Land doctrine, there were none whose hearts were not filled with joy and sincerely convinced and transformed, to turn towards his teachings.

故每次大师讲席,晋阳、太原、汶水远近信众总是踊跃前来听法 。散席之时大众赞叹不已,念佛之声响彻林谷。经过多年苦心劝化,三县七岁以上的男女都会称念阿弥陀佛名号。因大师德业隆盛,唐贞观年间,太宗皇帝为祈愿文德皇后病愈,曾亲临玄中寺谒访供养道绰大师。

Thus, every time the Great Master lectured, from Jinyang, Taiyuan, Wenshui, regardless of far or near, devotees would always enthusiastically come to listen. At the end of the lectures, the masses would be full of praise, as the sound of mindfulness of the Buddha (i.e. Amituofo) would reverberate through the woods and valleys. After many years of painstaking persuasion, all of the three counties’ men and women over the age of seven could recite the name of Amitabha Buddha (i.e. Amituofo). Due to the Great Master’s great and magnificent virtuous deeds, in the Tang Dynasty’s Zhenguan years, Emperor Taizong once personally visited Xuanzhong Monastery, to pray for the speedy recovery of Empress Wendi, and visited the Great Master, to pay homage and make offerings to him.

南北朝以来,弥陀净土信仰在中国己渐兴盛起来。各宗大师也渐渐开始站在自身宗派立场对净土信仰所涉及的诸多议题,提出了自己的看法。虽然这有促进净土法门的传播,但由于知见各异,反而对净土信仰和修学制造了很多新的问题。

Since the Northern and Southern Dynasties, faith in Amitabha Buddha’s Pure Land teachings in China gradually flourished. Great Masters of various traditions also gradually started to raise questions on subjects of the Pure Land’s teachings from the perspectives of their traditions. Although this might promote propagation of the Pure Land Dharma door, however, due to the views each being different, this caused many new problems for the Pure land’s faith and practice instead.

针对这种现象,大师著了《安乐集》二卷,广引经论五十余部,力图扫除种种不利净土发展的思想理论,例如阿弥陀佛不是报佛,极乐净土不是报土的说法。

Directed towards this phenomenon, the Great Master authored the Collection On Peace And Bliss in two scrolls, which widely cited from more than 50 sutras and commentaries, as a diligent effort to eradicate various forms of thought and theories harmful to the Pure Land tradition’s development, such as the misconceptions that Amitabha Buddha is not a Reward (Body) Buddha, and that his Pure Land is not a Reward Land.

大师在继承昙鸾大师的思想基础上加了自身的生活经历和广博的佛学知识,对净土义理的发挥展现出其独特的视角。在昙鸾大师和龙树菩萨的难行道和易行道之说,大师系统而完整地将佛陀一代教法依难行易行、自力他力分判为圣道门与净土门。

The Great Master, upon inheriting Great Master Tanluan’s foundational thought, added his personal life experiences and his extensive knowledge on Buddhist studies, to elaborate on and express the Pure Land doctrine’s unique viewpoints. With Great Master Tanluan and Nagarjuna Bodhisattva’s teachings on the Difficult Path and Easy Path, the Great Master systematically and completely categorised all of the Buddha’s teachings as either relying on the Difficult Path or Easy Path, as with Self-Power or also with Other-Power, as the Noble Path Door and Pure Land Door.

在这之前,昙鸾大师虽以为‘十念往生’的概念作出解释,但仍然有疑问者。其中有代表性的是摄论学派的‘十念往生’乃如来‘别时意’之说。大师说‘十念成就’和‘即得往生’均是今时之果, 而《观经》中也根本未谈什么‘别时远因’。

Before this, although Great Master Tanluan had already explained the concept of ‘[attaining rebirth in Amitabha Buddha’s Pure Land with] ten mindful thoughts [of “Amituofo”]’, there were still disbelievers. Among them, of representative nature is the Shelun (Mahayanasangraha) school of thought, that the concept is but the Tathagata’s teaching on ‘[its effect in] another [future] time’ (Kalantarabhipraya). The Great Master taught that the ‘ten mindful thoughts accomplishing [rebirth in Amitabha Buddha’s Pure Land] and to ‘immediately attain rebirth [in Amitabha Buddha’s Pure Land] are all the effect (fruit) of this present life. Furthermore, there was no mention of ‘another time’s distant cause’ (Kalantarabhipraya) in the Contemplation Sutra.

此外‘十念往生’者都是有深厚善根。虽然此人这生因三毒鼓动身口意而造诸恶,但曾经供养诸佛、发菩提心,不谤大乘,爱乐佛法,所以临命终时遇善知识开示,即能信受奉行,至心念佛,十念也能往生。

Moreover, those able to ‘[attaining rebirth in Amitabha Buddha’s Pure Land with] ten mindful thoughts [of “Amituofo”]’ are all with profound good roots. Although these persons in this life, due to the Three Poisons (greed, hatred and delusion), which aroused their body, speech and thought to create much negative karma, however, in their previous lifetimes, having made offerings to many Buddhas, given rise to Bodhicitta, not slandering the Mahayana teachings, and have joyful love for the Buddha’s teachings, thus when approaching death able to meet good-knowing advisors who offer guidance, and are able to faithfully receive and practise, with utmost sincerity mindful of [Amitabha] Buddha, with ten mindful thoughts also able to be reborn (in his Pure Land).

除教理讲述外, 大师为鼓励大众精进念佛,特教大家称念阿弥陀佛名号之时用豆类记下数目,每称名一声便记一粒。以此记数念佛就是我们今天所用的数珠念佛 。

Theory aside, the Great Master, for encouraging the masses to diligently be mindful of Amitabha Buddha, specially taught everyone to use beans to record their number of recitations, with every one recitation recorded by one bean. This method of counting chants is the originator of today’s using of counting beads while mindful of Buddha.

大师七十岁时,不但身体轻健,还新生龀齿。直到往生前,依然容光焕发,精神矍烁。贞观十九年(645 年)四月二十四日,大师预知时至,与道俗告别。三县内信众前来送别者不计其数。二十七日于玄中寺入寂,时年八十有四。大师往生之时,有白云从西方而至化为自光彻照通过屋舍。荼毗时,又有五色光现于空中,映绕日轮。大师往生瑞相不可思议。

When Great Master was 70-years-old, not only was his body light and healthy, he even grew new adult teeth. Until before his rebirth, he was still glowing with good health, and in radiant spirits. In Zhenguan’s 19th year (645 C.E.), on the 24th day of the 4th lunar month, the Great Master knew in advance the time of his departure, and to the monastics and laypeople, he bade farewell. Countless devotees from the three counties came forth to say goodbye. On the 27th day, at Xuanzhong Monastery, he passed on, at the age of 84. When the Great Master was reborn, a white cloud arrived from the West, and shone its light through the house. During cremation, five-coloured light appeared in the sky, to shine around the sun. The Great Master’s auspicious signs throughout his rebirth were inconceivable.

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