Excerpts Translations

The Three Provisions of Faith, Aspiration & Practice

(Teachings from the 9th & 13th Pure Land Patriarchs)

What is Faith?


  1. 信阿弥陀佛愿力,
  2. 信释迦文佛教话,
  3. 信六方诸佛赞叹。


– 澫益大师

What is meant by Faith?

  1. Faith in the power of Amitabha Buddha’s Vows,
  2. Faith in Shakyamuni Buddha’s spoken teachings,
  3. Faith in the praises of all Buddhas of the six directions [of Amitabha Buddha].

Lacking such Faith, one cannot be truly rescued [by Amitabha Buddha].
Therefore, one should first give rise to deep Faith, and not give rise to doubts.

– Great Master Ou Yi

What is Aspiration?


一切时中,厌恶娑婆生死之苦,欣慕净土菩提之乐 ,随有所作,

– 澫益大师

What is meant by Aspiration [Vow]?

During all times, loathe the suffering of [cyclical] birth and death in the Saha world, adore and envy [and thus yearn for] the bliss of enlightenment in [Amitabha Buddha’s] Pure Land. For all that is done, be it good or evil, if it is good, the merits should be dedicated for rebirth in Pure Land, if it is evil, there should be repentance for Aspiring rebirth in Pure Land. Furthermore, without a secondary ambition, this is called Aspiration.

– Great Master Ou Yi

What is Practice?



– 澫益大师

What is meant by Practice?

With Faith and Aspiration already complete, recitation of [Amitabha] Buddha’s name [Amituofo] is correctly called the Main Practice, while correction of evil and cultivation of good are all called Auxiliary [Supportive] Practices.

– Great Master Ou Yi

What is the Relationship of Faith, Aspiration and Practice?


– 澫益大师

Whether or not one obtains rebirth in [Amitabha Buddha’s] Pure Land depends completely on the presence or absence of Faith and Aspiration. Whether the grade of one’s rebirth is high[er] or low[er] depends completely on the depth or shallowness of upholding [reciting] the name [of Amitabha Buddha].

– Great Master Ou Yi


– 印光大师

In the Practice of reciting the Buddha’s name, our Faith and Aspiration [Vow] are emphasised. If one has Faith and Aspiration, even if one has not attained single-mindedness (in Practice) yet, one can still obtain rebirth in [Amitabha Buddha’s] Pure Land. However, if one has attained single-mindedness, and yet lacks Faith and Aspiration, one will not be reborn in Pure Land. Many worldly people emphasise being single-minded, not emphasising Faith and Aspiration, thus missing what is essential. Furthermore, when they have yet to attain single-mindedness, they doubt and fear not being able to obtain rebirth in Pure Land, which is completely opposite of true Faith and profound Aspiration. Therefore, it is beneficial to increase Faith and Aspiration, till single-mindedness is achieved. This is good mindfulness. If we fail to achieve single-mindedness and thus always doubt whether we can be reborn in Pure Land, this becomes bad mindfulness. This should not be not known!

– Great Master Yin Guang



– 印光大师

All sentient beings who hear of the Pure Land Dharma method should believe thus now: the Saha world is extreme suffering, while the Western Pure Land [of Amitabha Buddha] is ultimate bliss; our karmic obstacles of many lifetimes are deep and heavy, and without [Amitabha] Buddha’s power to help us, it will be extremely difficult to transcend the Saha world; if we seek rebirth in Pure Land, we shall be reborn there in this very life; and if we recite the Buddha’s name [Amituofo], he will definitely receive and gather us in with loving-kindness and compassion.

Therefore, with resolute single-mindedness, Vow [Aspire] to transcend the Saha world, just like a prisoner desires to leave jail without the slightest fondness or attachment towards it; Vow to be reborn in the West[ern Pure Land], just like a guest longs to return to one’s homeland. How can there be any thought of procrastination? From now on, as your time and ability allow, with utmost sincerity, you should single-mindedly uphold [recite] the sacred name of Amitabha Buddha [Amituofo]. Whether speaking or silent, moving or still, walking, standing, sitting or reclining, greeting or serving guests, putting on clothes or eating, ensure that the Buddha never leaves your mind, and that your mind never leaves the Buddha.

– Great Master Yin Guang

Please be mindful of your speech, Amituofo!

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